Business Mangement

In: Business and Management

Submitted By shershah
Words 321
Pages 2
Countertrade is an umbrella term used to describe many different types of transactions each in “which the seller provides a buyer with goods or services and promises in return to purchase goods or services from the buyer”. It may or may not involve the use of currency, as in barter.

By far the largest indirect method of exporting is countertrade. Competitive intensity means more and more investment in marketing. In this situation the organization may expand operations by operating in markets where competition is less intense but currency based exchange is not possible. Also, countries may wish to trade in spite of the degree of competition, but currency again is a problem. Countertrade can also be used to stimulate home industries or where raw materials are in short supply. It can, also, give a basis for reciprocal trade.

Countertrade can take many forms. These are: • Barter- is the direct exchange of one good for another. It requires a double coincidence of wants. Barter trade can take a number of formats. Simple barter is the least complex and oldest form of bilateral, non – monetarised trade. Often it is called "straight", "classical" or "pure" barter. • A clearinghouse arrangement- is a form of barter in which the traders agree to buy a certain amount of goods from each other. They set up accounts with each other that are debited and credited as needed. At the maturity of the arrangement, the parties settle up in cash or merchandise. • Switch trading - Practice in which one company sells to another its obligation to make a purchase in a given country. Switch trade is the purchase by a third party of one country’s clearing agreement balance for hard currency. • A buy-back transaction involves a technology transfer via the sale of a manufacturing plant. The seller of the plant agrees to buy back some of the output of the plant once…...

Similar Documents

Events Mangement

...return from the tourists the tourism in Brazil has increased since 2004 according to “ministry of tourism” which has had a massive positive impact in Brazil’s economy. The carnival is a very important part of the Brazilian history and it’s a time where the community’s come together and celebrate and forget there day to day struggles which Brazil is known to be going through this event has helped Brazil to be recognized internationally as it is known by its vibrant colourful costumes , dances and music . Brazil is still improving the impacts which is affected by the carnival they are trying to minimised all the crime which is involved and also in the same time trying not to upset there residents. Reference List Bowdin G (2001). Events Mangement. Great Britain: Heineman. 80-97 JULIANA BARBASSA . (2012). Rio Carnival: bigger, brighter ... more organized?. Available: Last accessed 31/01/13. Sarah de Sainte Croix. (2012). Rio’s 2012 Carnival in Numbers: Daily. Available: Last accessed 31/01/13. Sarah de Sainte Croix. (2012). Residents Brace for Neighborhood Blocos. Available: Last accessed 31/01/13. no author. (no year). Tips to Rio de Janeiro drugs poverty. Available:......

Words: 1407 - Pages: 6


... |Chap 9: An introduction to Macroeconomics | | | |Chap 10: Measuring domestic output and national income |Q3 & Q8; | |2 | |P2 & P5 | |[28/02/13] | | | | |Chap 11: Economic Growth |Q3 & Q4; | |3 | |P1 & P4 | |[07/03/13] | | | | |Chap 12: Business cycles, unemployment, and inflation |Q1 & Q7; | |4 | |P2 & P5 | |[14/03/13] | | | | |Chap 13: Basic Macroeconomic relationships |Q3; | | | |P1 & P2 | |5 |1st Quiz online (Chap 1-3 and 9-12) | | |[21/03/13] | | | | | ...

Words: 901 - Pages: 4


...influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries.[4] Definitions[edit] Views on the definition and scope of management include: • Management defined as the organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of clearly defined objectives • Management included as one of the factors of production - along with machines, materials and money • Peter Drucker (1909–2005) sees the basic task of a management as twofold: marketing and innovation. Nevertheless, innovation is also linked to marketing (product innovation is a central strategic marketing issue). Peter Drucker identifies marketing as a key essence for business success, but management and marketing are generally understood[by whom?] as two different branches ofbusiness administration knowledge. • Directors and managers should have the authority and responsibility to make decisions to direct an enterprise when given the authority[citation needed] • As a discipline, management comprises the interlocking functions of formulating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing a firm's resources to achieve a policy's objectives • The size of management can range from one person in a small firm to hundreds or thousands of managers in multinational companies. • In large firms, the board of directors formulates the policy that the chief executive officer implements.[5] ...

Words: 2588 - Pages: 11


...Name University Affiliation Date Introduction The success of any business organization is highly dependent on its strategic management. It is defined as the process by which managers of a firm analyse the external and internal environments with the aim of formulating strategies and apportioning resources to develop a competitive advantage in an industry that permits for the successful realization of organizational objectives. The company’s mission, vision and future goals are all set from the strategic process. Further, strategic management provides managers with the advantage of allocating resources efficiently. Moreover, these plans help give the firm a competitive advantage in the market. Statistics have proven that on average, companies that employ strategic management are more successful than those that don’t. This assignment will aim to clarify the concept of strategic management in the global sense as well as focus on Southwest Airlines, Starbucks, GAP and Google companies. In so doing, the following questions will be answered: Which of the strategies is the company using? What are the weaknesses and strengths of the different strategies? Under what conditions do they work best? What are the effects of implementation of the organization culture in the strategy? In addition, the report will identify and explain the internal analysis for Google, external analysis for GAP, generic business strategy for Starbucks and implementation culture for Southwest......

Words: 3170 - Pages: 13

The Mangement Techniques

...The Mangement techniques are designed in such a way that can be used in almost all complicated situation. There is list of “softer" managerial &’’ tough’’ managerial skills that turns average performers to star performer. It should be noticed that what ultimately differ the good to great achievers with the help of these management skills. The benefits of various Managerial approaches are: 1. Hawthorne effect Frederick Taylor's introduced some influential ideas, so that individual’s performance can be improved . Hawthorne established some social context which was influence through external surroundings. The experimenters concluded that changing the physical conditions as well as working hours, rest breaks improves the workers' productivity. This approach has led to increase production with lower Absenteeism. (The Economist, 2014) 2. SWOT analysis The advantages SWOT analysis is its low cost. It can be done by anyone who understands the situation. It consume less time for addressing the complex situation. It does not require any external consultant .It helps to understand problem while addressing weaknesses with the deter threats at the same time. Most importantly it helps to capitalise opportunities with the understanding of strengths. 3. Centralization While Centralization of decision making helps in Reducing cost of the budget. It also leads to uniformity in action of top management. Its impact is more clearly visible due to existence of personal......

Words: 452 - Pages: 2


...Vision 1. Antonio is able to select the type of benefits he receives by choosing from a list of possibilities including health insurance, dental and vision plans, and life and disability. This type of “cafeteria” plan is called a ________ benefits plan. a. volunteer b. legally mandated c. supplemental d. flexible 2. ________ percent of the typical manager's day is spent engaged in communications. a. About 75 b. Less than 25 c. More than 75 d. About 50 3. The basic components of goal-setting theory include all of the following EXCEPT ________. a. goal choice b. goal acceptance c. goal difficulty d. performance feedback 4. Which of the following tasks are NOT typically outsourced? a. noncore business b. accounting c. production d. core business 5. Which of the following statements is correct regarding team conflict? a. It will be reduced if the team is diverse. b. It should be avoided at all costs. c. It rarely occurs in most teams. d. It often improves team performance. 6. What is the main reason some companies have set up offshore assembly plants? a. In search of low wages b. Available marketing opportunities c. Inexpensive energy d. Nearness to raw materials...

Words: 250 - Pages: 1

Hnc Business Mangement Human Resource Management Learning Outcome 2 & 3

...This system could be developed in many ways which is why a dedicated staff member is necessary to design a system befitting the needs of Escape to the Wild. A management information system could hold the company’s financial information, staff details, make sales details accessible to all departments, have a central database for employees, communicate up to date information with employees, staff could utilise a specific program for leave requests and absence notifications, handle expenses claims, monitor workflow, manage business processes, contain a document repository of human resource policies and procedures accessible to all staff members, training and development plans and provide internal communication tools such as an instant messenger system. A finance assistant would oversee finances within the human resource department, ensuring there is adequate funds for future training and special leave pay. SHRM human capital bench marking study suggest a business with 250 to 499 members of staff should have a ratio of 1.7% members of staff in a HRM department. There are 6 positions described making a total of 2% ratio of the total members of staff, however several of these positions could be fulfilled by a single member of staff bringing down this total staff ratio, for example the employee advocate and functional expert positions could be covered by one member of staff providing they have adequate qualifications for this. Having 5 members of staff in the human resource......

Words: 1513 - Pages: 7


...Production and Operations Management Constance Wall Dr. Akpan Business 508 February 13, 2010 Entrepreneurial Leadership When it comes to entrepreneurial leadership, entrepreneurs Steve Case and James Kouzes share similar theories and philosophies oh how his leadership style works. Steve Case identifies a concise theory as the foundation of successful entrepreneurs, using the three P’s (people, passion, and perseverance). Cases believes that “if you have all three P’s in the right balance, almost anything is possible; on the hand if you don’t have the three P’s nothing is possible(Case)”. Out of all the technological, invention, innovative projects that Case has been apart of, he has been capable to test and prove accuracy of his 3 P’s theory and that it is truly a formula for success. Along with the three P’s, Case also believed that it necessary to “swing for the fences” and take risks that no one else would dare think about doing (Case). With the birth and growth of AOL, came ample success, as well has opened the gateway for additionally innovative technology. Case and his partners took risks that other companies refused to take, such as the “razor and blades” concepts, and once they finished one project, whether it succeeded or failed, they were also looking for the next project that would take the world by storm. (Case) Although, Kouzes approaches his philosophy from a different point of view, he uses the same elements as Case does with his......

Words: 995 - Pages: 4


...scarcity| c.|exclusively the study of business firms| d.|fundamentally the same as sociology| e.|applicable only when scarcity is not a problem| ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: Financial theories, analysis, reporting, and markets LOC: The study of economics, and definitions of economics TOP: Economics | Scarcity and Choice 7. Economics is a.|the narrow study of how to make money in financial markets| b.|the broad study of how to allocate unlimited resources to satisfy limited uses| c.|the broad study of how to allocate limited resources to satisfy unlimited wants| d.|the narrow study of using stocks and bonds to their maximum potential| e.|the narrow study of how to be conservative in financial affairs| ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: Financial theories, analysis, reporting, and markets LOC: The study of economics, and definitions of economics TOP: Economics | Scarcity and Choice 8. Economics is a.|a discipline in the physical sciences| b.|a field that deals exclusively with normative issues| c.|a field that deals exclusively with positive issues| d.|only useful for examining behavior in capitalist economies| e.|a discipline that focuses on how choices are made in society| ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: Financial theories, analysis, reporting, and markets LOC: The study of economics, and definitions of economics TOP: Economics | Scarcity and Choice 9. Economics is the study of a.|how to start a business| b.|how to make money in......

Words: 12936 - Pages: 52

Sustainability Mangement

...| Sustainability management | | | | | * Executive Summary Sustainability is a key concern for the business now-a-days. Firms are now triggering resources and practices towards the sustainable growth of the business. Shell Group, a leading firm in energy industry, is trying to turn their resources for being sustainable in their business practices. For being so, they can follow two approaches such as Carroll’s four part model of CSR and stakeholder analysis. It has become a vital concern for the firms like shell to conduct CSR activities as they have to operate in an environment where they have to be economically viable as well as conforming to the legal laws, rights and obligations of the society. Not only the corporate social responsibility but also the stakeholder’s satisfaction can influence a great deal in the firm’s success. So, the stakeholder’s theory means a lot to the firms. Stakeholders can be internal as well as external. For applying those approaches, shell has to consider several analysis like cost benefit, life cycle analysis, environmental impact analysis, stakeholder matrix , segmentation analysis and so on. Finally, the company will get findings of taking one approaches as per the analysis to implement for being sustainable. * Contents Executive Summary 1 1 Introduction 3 2 For effective management of sustainability, these two approaches can be considered by the Shell Group as prescribed. The approaches are 4 2.1 Carroll’s...

Words: 4511 - Pages: 19


...or more parties. It involves at least two things of value, agreed-upon conditions, a time of agreement, and a place of agreement. Exchange & Transactions Exchange involves obtaining a desired product from someone by offering something in return. Five conditions must be satisfied for exchange to occur. It is value-creating process. There must be at least two participants in the process. Each party must offer something of value to the other. Both parties must want to deal with each other. Both participants have the right to accept or to reject the offer. Both groups must have the ability to communicate and deliver on the mutual agreement. Marketing Myopia Management’s failure to recognize a company’s scope of business. Sellers pay more attention to the specific products they offer than to the benefits and experiences produced by the products. They focus on the “wants” and lose sight of the “needs.” * Exchange is the act of obtaining a desired product by offering something in return . * Exchange takes place when 5 conditions are satisfied: (a) Two parties should be there (b) Each party must have something of value to the other (c) Each party is capable of communication & delivery (d) Each party is free to accept or reject the offer (e) Each party believes that it is appropriate to deal with the other party * Exchange is a process rather than......

Words: 1404 - Pages: 6


...Journal of Marketing, 54(1), 71-84. Bowen, D. E., & Johnston, R. (1999). Internal service recovery: Developing a new construct. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 10(2), 118-131. doi:10.1108/09564239910264307 Bowen, D. E., & Johnston, R. (2002). Internal service recovery: Developing a new construct. Measuring Business Excellence, 6(1), 47. Retrieved from Brown, S. P., & Peterson, R. A. (1993). Antecedents and consequences of salesperson job satisfaction: Meta-analysis and assessment of causal effects. Journal of Marketing Research, 30(1), 63-77. Gabrielsen, G. O. S., & Lewis, B. R. (1998). Intra-organisational aspects of service quality management: The employees' perspective. The Service Industries Journal, 18(2), 64-89. doi:10.1080/02642069800000019 Hartline, M. D., & Ferrell, O. C. (1996). The management of customer-contact service employees: An empirical investigation. Journal of Marketing, 60(4), 52-70. Retrieved from Jenkins, K. J. (1992). Service quality in the skies. Business Quarterly, 57(2), 13. Retrieved from Rajendran, C., Sureshchandar, G. S., & Anantharaman, R. N. (2002). The relationship between management's perception of total quality service and customer perceptions of service quality. Total Quality Management, 13(1), 69-88.......

Words: 2151 - Pages: 9

Projcet Mangement

...Projcet Mangement Question 1 Review one of the pages from your local newspaper, and try to identify all the projects contained in the articles. How many were you able to find? You must highlight all of them. From the articles that you had chosen, explain the definition of a project. Why did you classify them as ‘project’? Answer 1 I have chosen two articles extracted from The New Straits Times (Business Times B2) – from the 15th November 2014 issue. There are two (2) articles that I have found that can be classified as a “project’   1. AirAsia Eyes Higher Load in 2015   a. This article entails a project – new cooperate building that is slated to begin in December 2014 and is scheduled to complete by June 2016 which defines a life span of a project and has defined objective of constructing a new building.   b. It is unique as it is a 60 story building dubbed RedQ with an estimated floor area of 613,383 square feet.   c. A building cost of close to RM 140 million with the purpose of serving as a its new cooperate headquarters satisfies the elements of cost and performance requirements that defines a project.   d. It requires cross orginizalation participation because the proposed corporate building is to accommodate multiple departments with various individual and or specialized requirements and needs which involves the input and collaboration for various organizational participates.       e. This building has the element of risk and uncertainty as it......

Words: 333 - Pages: 2

Business Mangement

...Leadership and Organizational Behavior December 9, 2011 ROWE Program at Best Buy In 1966 Richard M Schulze and partner start up a business called Sound of Music, Inc. Sound of Music, Inc sold home and car stereos in St. Paul Minnesota. In 1971 Schultze bought out his partner and began to expand the retail chain, no longer selling just stereos. “His first step was to expand Sound of Music's offerings to include appliances and VCRs. Schulze saw sales quickly climb. In 1982 revenues reached $9.3 million; the following year the company renamed itself Best Buy Co., Inc. and firmly oriented itself toward an older, broader, and more affluent customer base.” (Dougins, 2003) This was the birth of Best Buy.Best Buy is not one of the leading consumer electronic dealers within the United States. The Culture of Best Buy The culture of Best Buy has changed quite a bit since the first store opened in 1982. The newer culture is much more laid back and is more oriented to the work home balance. “The nation's leading electronics retailer has embarked on a radical--if risky--experiment to transform a culture once known for killer hours and herd-riding bosses. The endeavor, called ROWE, for "results-only work environment," seeks to demolish decades-old business dogma that equates physical presence with productivity. The goal at Best Buy is to judge performance on output instead of hours.” (Conlin, 2006) Now, if Joe wants to leave at noon to go fishing or Sallie wants to......

Words: 1357 - Pages: 6

Project Mangement

..."negotiating style"  the way persons from different cultures conduct themselves in negotiating activities. Culture determines the way people perceive and approach the negotiating process. They have specific perspectives on power, time, risk, communication, and complexity. Thus cross-cultural negotiators bring into contact unfamiliar and potentially conflicting sets of categories, rules, plans, and behaviors. The cross-cultural negotiator cannot take common knowledge and practices for granted. Difficulties sometimes arise from the different expectations negotiators have regarding the social setting of the negotiation. The cultural differences consistently influence international business negotiations. This indicates that even though some universal characteristics of international business negotiation are generally recognized, negotiators from specific cultures view negotiations as a particular style. They emphasize different priorities of goals, the negotiation process, and expected outcomes. Understanding the influence of culture in negotiation reduces confusion and misinterpretations in the process. Negotiators need to be aware of such cultural differences and become well prepared for them. To analyze the cultural diversity, Hofstede (1991) proposed four cultural dimensions to assess the values which characterize specific patterns. The first dimension is social inequality or power distance, which is the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and......

Words: 480 - Pages: 2

IMDb: 6 HD Kung Fu Masters 3 | The Nun (2018) CAM IMDb 6.6 Genre: Horror; Mystery; Thriller; A priest with a haunted past and a novice on the threshold of her final vows are sent by the Vatican to investigate the death of a young nun in Romania and confront a malevolent force in the form of a demonic nun. | Ramji Gulati