English and Literature
Submitted By bstork666
The blood or hemolymph, as in other arthropods, is carried in an open circulatory system. The body organs, "heart" (dorsal aorta), muscles, etc. are surrounded in a reservoir of blood, and pulsing contractions of the tube-like dorsal aorta create a weak circulatory force.
In fertilised queens the ovaries are activated when the queen lays her egg. It passes along the oviduct to the vagina. In the vagina there is a chamber called the spermatheca. This is where the queen stores sperm from her mating. The queen, depending on need, may allow her egg to be fertilised. Non-fertilised eggs become males, and only fertilised eggs grow into females and queens.
As in all animals, hormones play a significant role in the growth and development of the bumblebee. The hormones that stimulate the development of the ovaries are suppressed in female worker bees, while the queen remains dominant. Salivary glands in the head secrete saliva, which mixes with the nectar and pollen. Saliva is also mixed into the nest materials to soften them. The body fat is a nutritional store; before hibernation, queens eat as much as they can to enlarge their fat body, and the fat in the cells is used up during hibernation.
A bumblebee Bombus pascuorum extending its tongue towards a Heuchera inflorescence
Like all bee tongues, the bumblebee tongue (the proboscis) is a long hairy structure that extends from a sheath-like modified maxilla. The primary action of the tongue is lapping, i.e. repeated dipping of the tongue into liquid. During lapping, nectar is drawn up the proboscis by capillary action. When at rest or flying, the proboscis is kept folded under the head. The exoskeleton of the abdomen is divided into plates called dorsal tergites and ventral sternites. Wax is secreted from glands on the sternites.
The brightly coloured pile of the bumblebee is a form of aposematic signal.…...