Cancer Drug for Alzheimers

In: Science

Submitted By abrcrmbgrl26
Words 664
Pages 3
Cancer drug may have Alzheimer’s benefits
By Laura Sanders, Science News
Science News
Date Published:
March 10, 2012

Alzheimer’s a disease that progressively attacks the brain’s nerve cells which results in many changes in behavior, memory and thinking skills. Scientists have been studying this disease for decades and have yet to come up with any drug that can cure or help cure this disease, until recently that is. Cramer of Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Cleveland took a drug called bexarotene and injected it into mice that have Alzheimer’s. Bexarotene has been around for over ten years and is used as a second treatment of T-cell lymphoma. Cramer and her colleagues studied mice whose brains were full of both types of A-beta plaques. A-beta called amylod-beta exists in small fragments that scramble the nerve cell communication and there are large sticky clumps called plaques. The team gave a dose of the bexarotene to the mice and watched over the next fourteen days to see what would happen. Within the first twenty-four hours the levels of A-beat plaque fell by 25 percent and within the 14 days after given the bexarotene the mice A-beta plaques fell by 75 percent. Bexarotene targets the protein that carries ApoE and tries to regulate it from causing Alzheimer’s. ApoE is a big cause of Alzheimer’s as it tries to carry A-beta from the brain. Cramer ran another test of the memory of the mice. Cramer noted that generally when you put mice in a cage with tissue paper they rip the tissue paper into smaller pieces, turning the paper into a softer bed to sleep in. When Cramer tested mice that had numerous amounts of A-beta in their brains their memory to perform the tissue paper test was not as sufficient as the mice with A-beta being transported out. After injecting bexarotene into the nonperforming mice within three days they…...

Similar Documents


...medication. The existing anti-seizure drug, levetiracetam, which improves memory and brain function in adults with a cognitive impairment, which sometimes leads to Alzheimer’s disease, according to a Johns Hopkins University study. Researchers have found that this drug has already used for epilepsy patients and if used for Alzheimer’s patients may slow the abnormal loss of brain function in some aging patients, but more studies are needed before the drug can be used for Alzheimer’s by doctors and patients. Alzheimer’s can be detected by a brain scan, which shows sticky clumps of protein called beta amyloid and according to the Washington Post, “researchers are now reporting that progress has been made with a blood test for Alzheimer’s that will indicate hidden brain plaque. According to the research from Australia, a single blood test did a good job of indicating how much of the telltale Alzheimer’s plaque lurks in a person’s brain. If the test proves accurate in larger studies, it could have a way to check people having memory problems to see who needs more definitive testing for the disease.” In another research, according to science daily, “scientists have connected e4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E genotype with the Alzheimer’s precondition” the data is not reliable yet. Also according to alzheimer’, “there is one hypertension drug that could reverse the effects of memory decline. Quanfacine is a licensed hypertension drug, is said to prevent the buildup of......

Words: 836 - Pages: 4

Expensive Cancer Drugs: a Comparison Between the United States and the United Kingdom

...Research Assignment Article: Expensive Cancer Drugs: A Comparison between the United States and the United Kingdom. The article that I will do an overview on is entitled: Expensive Cancer Drugs: A Comparison between the United States and the United Kingdom. The article compared the United Kingdom’s and the United States experience with cancer drugs and how expensive they can be due to medical technologies. This article also discusses the differences between the two countries access to new cancer drugs and their cancer outcomes. Most think that the wealthy can buy their way to new medical technologies and treatments but is this true? This article breaks down how it is possible for the wealthy and the low income population can to receive cancer drugs in both the United Kingdom and in the United States. The United Kingdom’s National Health Service (NHS) is funded by a general taxation system with a budget that is set every 3 years by government. This service is offered to the citizens of the United Kingdom can receive healthcare regardless of financial status. NHS is the main care provider for the majority of the population. When it comes to the least restrictive pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement the United Kingdom has it. The surprising thing abut the NHS I found was almost all cancer drugs become free at the point of service using taxpayers money allocated to them by the government for the resident’s needs. Not all drugs are offered free. The Health and Clinical......

Words: 802 - Pages: 4


...and older and is classified as sporadic AD. The prevalence of AD varies among many different factors, including age, co-morbidities, genetics, and education level. There is no way to definitively diagnose AD without performing an autopsy. There is no cure for AD, however promising research and development for early detection and treatment is underway. Abstract Alzheimer’s disease was discovered in 1906 by Alois Alzheimer, a German neurologist and psychiatrist2. The disease was initially observed in a 51-year-old woman named Auguste D. Her family brought her to Dr. Alzheimer in 1901 after noticing changes in her personality and behavior. The family reported problems with memory, difficulty speaking, and impaired comprehension. Dr. Alzheimer later described Auguste as having an aggressive form of dementia, manifesting in memory, language and behavioral deficits3. Dr. Alzheimer noted many abnormal symptoms, including difficulty with speech, agitation, and confusion4. He followed her care for five years, until her death in 1906. Following her death, Dr. Alzheimer performed an autopsy, during which he found dramatic shrinkage of the cerebral cortex, fatty deposits in blood vessels, and atrophied brain cells2. He discovered neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques, Bethune 3 Alzheimer’s Disease vs. Dementia and Normal Aging Alzheimer’s disease is often confused with normal aging and dementia. Severe memory loss, characteristic of AD, is not a symptom of normal aging.......

Words: 4642 - Pages: 19

Cancer Drugs

...Production of Cancer Drugs Hearing the words “you have cancer,” are only the beginning of a long and horrible experience made only more difficult for the afflicted by the complexity of getting a successful treatment to those that need it. The processes of getting effective treatments to patients are influenced by economic issues, the special medical needs of those served, and by the Federal Drug Administration making sure that the risks and costs of the treatment don’t outweigh the benefits. The cost of cancer involves the cost of treatment, the cost of research, and the cost of FDA processes to get the treatments and drugs to the market. Even when the economy is good these are difficult things to meet. The costs of cancer treatment can be so devastating to both insured, and uninsured that cancer stricken patients sometimes decide not to take the treatments. Decisions must be made whether to pay the mortgage, or pay for treatments that may or may not cure the cancer. A cure for cancer has not yet been found .This year, about 580,350 US residents are expected to die of cancer, that’s nearly 1,600 people a day. Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the United States, exceeded only by heart disease. Cancer accounts for nearly one out of every four deaths in the United States (American Cancer Society, Last Revised: 02/01/2013, According to the American Cancer Society, The financial costs of......

Words: 1942 - Pages: 8


...2025. The author says, "Government declarations of war on drugs or disease often end in losing battles. That is why some neuroscientists have greeted the Obama administration’s goal of preventing or treating Alzheimer’s by 2025 with skepticism." (1) While I understand the author's concern about declarations leading to losing battles, I also believe that speaking out against drugs and disease can lead to positive change. Last semester in my Biostatistics class, I had the opportunity to attend a lecture from a member of the Cache County Study on Memory Health and Aging. It is a collaborative group of studies with researchers at Utah State University, Duke University Medical Center and The John Hopkins University. This study is conducted in Cache County, Utah and is designed to examine genetic and environmental factors associated with risk for Alzheimer's disease. This study has been going for longer than 16 years and has enrolled over 5000 residents of the county. The reason the study is conducted here is because Cache County elderly have longer life expectancy than other areas of the United States, make it a prime location for the study. The project investigated three important assumptions which are first, certain genes may influence Alzheimer dementia in old age, second, Alzheimer's has a maximum occurrence near 80 years of age and then decreases and third, specific environmental factors may reduce Alzheimer dementia before the age of 85. (2) I find this study......

Words: 668 - Pages: 3


...Can Alzheimer be reversed? Many experts suggest that 5.1 million Americans have Alzheimer disease (“About Alzheimer Disease: Alzheimer Basic”). I currently take care of my grandmother and she was diagnosed with Alzheimer Disease about three almost four years ago. I would have paid anything for her not have to suffer through this disease. Alzheimer Disease (also known as “AD”) is a disease that is growing within our population and has not found a cure. If they do not find a cure Alzheimer’s will have a risk to increases with age, and the U.S. population is aging. The number of people with Alzheimer’s doubles for every 5-year interval beyond age sixty five (4). Studies show, by 2050 over 13 million will have the Alzheimer disease (“Alzheimer's Facts and Figures”). Alzheimer is a disease that forms in your brain. Abnormal deposits of proteins form amyloid plaques and that tangles throughout the brain, and once-healthy neurons begin to work less efficiently.( “About Alzheimer Disease: Alzheimer Basic”) For a example it is the sign at a railroad crossing that the gates are no longer going back up. Alzheimer is one of the most common forms of dementia. (“About Alzheimer Disease: Alzheimer Basic”) Dementia has many causes besides loss of memory. It can have a effect on memory, language, attention and problem solving. Dementia can also have affect on their attitude and behavioral, where they might yell or hit you. Dementia can lead a person living completely dependent on someone...

Words: 776 - Pages: 4


...Alzheimer's disease was discovered by Dr. Alois Alzheimer, who did a great deal of research in the early 20th century regarding the disease. Research implies that there are some risk factors that seem to be linked in people with Alzheimer's disease. Much research has been done to try and track the origin of Alzheimer's disease, and many include environmental and genetic causes. (3) Alzheimer's is classified into two types; familial AD, which runs in families and follows inheritance patterns, and sporadic AD, in which no clear pattern of inheritance is found. Family history is considered a major risk factor. Individuals who have a relative with the disease are much more likely to develop it themselves. (4) Alzheimer's affects over four million people in the United Stares. Researchers predict that as the baby boomer generation begins to age, Alzheimer's could impact as many as 14 million people nationwide. The number of Alzheimer's cases is growing rapidly, afflicting 10% or more of people aged 65 or older and almost half of those over age 85. Alzheimer's is slightly more prevalent in woman than men. (3) Aging greatly increases the risk of developing Alzheimer's. Alzheimer's is usually seen in those over age 65, a rare and threatening type of Alzheimer's can occur in younger people in their 40s and 50s. This type is usually a result of family history or traumatic brain injuries experienced earlier in life. Aging in normally associated with the decline in the abilities to......

Words: 2052 - Pages: 9


...1. Title: Aging cells offer new target for Alzheimer's therapy 2. Author: Jessica Hamzelou 3. Published: September 26, 2012 4. 5. Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia. It is normally diagnosed in people over the age of 65, but it can be diagnosed earlier than that (early-onset Alzheimer's). There are many stages of Alzheimer's. In the early stages, a patient simply forgets recent events. In more advanced stages, they can have mood swings, language difficulty, problems with bodily functions, confusion, and aggression. "On average, the life expectancy following diagnosis is approximately seven years" (Molsa PK, Martilla RJ, Rinne UK, 1986). The causes of Alzheimer's has long been unknown, and has accounted for the hundreds of unsuccessful treatments. Scientists recently discovered large numbers of senescent cells in Alzheimer's patients. Senescent cells are cells that lose the ability to divide after many cycles of division, which results in deterioration and death of the cell. Claudio Torres at Drexel University College did an experiment to show the damage of senescence. He exposed human astrocytes (star-shaped cells in the brain) to hydrogen peroxide, which mimicked the metabolic stress that occurs with aging. It showed that cells started displaying similarities to genes associated with senescence. "Torres's team then looked for......

Words: 417 - Pages: 2

Alzheimers's%2B%2B%2B&utm_campaign=Unbranded%2BSigns%2Band%2BSymptoms%2B5/11&gclid=CIrGwvG9l6wCFYpb7AodaSjuUA). There are several symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease listed on the website[->0] including misplacing things. Objects are not just being misplaced but being placed in areas they should not be an example of this is instead of placing a purse on the counter when a person walks into the house they may place it in the freezer or refrigerator. Everyone may lose something for a short amount of time but when the object is placed somewhere completely out of the ordinary there may be reason for concern. Another symptom mentioned in the above website is when there are problems with language they may forget the name of something as simple as socks and instead ask for their “foot coverings”, it is common when we age to be unable to come up with the right word but not forgetting something used on nearly an everyday basis for many years. Diagnosing the disease is normally done by the person’s primary care physician. “Then the doctor may refer the person to a specialized center for memory evaluation, or to a neurologist (a nervous system specialist), geriatrician (a specialist in old age), or a psychiatrist for additional testing to be sure the diagnosis is correct.” ( ......

Words: 1654 - Pages: 7

Finding Different Drugs to Cure Cancer

...ASSIGNMENT 3.1: FINDING DIFFERENT DRUGS TO CURE CANCER by Wanda G. Sellers August 21, 2013 English 115 Instructor: Professor Audrey L. Vaughan Cancer is a very devastating disease. It attacks every organ in the human body. Many people in the United States and in foreign countries have cancer. Cancer affects many people’s lives and many more people are being diagnosed with cancer each day. Everyday scientists and researchers are trying to come up with new medicines to cure cancer. In this paper, I will discuss the process of developing new drugs to treat cancer, and the costs of developing these drugs. According to the oncologists at the website, more doctors and scientists are always looking for better ways to treat people with cancer. To do this, they are constantly developing and studying new drugs as well as looking for new ways to use the existing drugs. When scientists are developing new drugs for cancer patients, there are many researchers involved. They must find the right chemicals before testing them to see how effective they are in helping people. Sometimes this process takes from 5 to 12 years. Sometimes it takes longer than that. After the new drugs are developed, more time has to be allowed for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to approve the drugs before cancer patients can take them according to They do this by......

Words: 718 - Pages: 3

Anti-Cancer Drug Cost Regulations- Cocontainment for the Pharmaceutical Companies

...Anti-Cancer Drug Cost Regulations- Cost-Containment for the Pharmaceutical Companies Brenda Roberson University of Maryland University College Abstract Drug development is a long, inefficient, and expensive process and takes 10 to 15 years for development at a cost of about $1.3 billion (Nelson, 2014). When speaking of research and development (R&D) for new drugs; a large number of drugs that go through research do not make it to the FDA or the marketplace. Critics of pharmaceutical companies point out that only a small portion of the pharmaceutical companies’ expenditures account for research and development (R&D). The majority of the money’s spent in marketing and administration. There is also controversy over the $1.3 billion figure as an actual cost. Reported by Nelson (2014) Dr. Kantarjian of M.D. Anderson disputes the $1.3 billion figure for development; he believes this figure to be inflated to cover ancillary expenses, salaries, bonuses, stock market returns, and other indirect costs not related to R&D. The cost of cancer drug therapy is becoming impossible to justify or rationalize for both patient and society. New cancer drugs being approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are typically costing upwards of $100,000 per year and many times used in combination with other agents (Bunnell, 2012, p. 932) increasing the cost even more. These high priced anti-cancer drugs achieve only marginal benefit for the patient. Benefits achievements of...

Words: 2794 - Pages: 12


...function are commonly accompanied, and occasionally preceded, by deterioration in emotional control, social behavior, or motivation. Alzheimer disease is the most common form of dementia and possibly contributes to 60%-70% of cases. Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive function. AD is substantially increased among people aged 65 years or more, with a progressive decline in memory, thinking, language and learning capacity. AD should be differentiated from normal age-related decline in cognitive function, which is more gradual and associated with less disability. Disease often starts with mild symptoms and ends with severe brain damage. People with dementia lose their abilities at different rates. Whether these changes may be a cause or consequence of AD remains to be fully understood, but inflammation within the brain, including increased reactivity of the resident microglia towards amyloid deposits, has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of AD. The more individuals advance in age the higher is the risk they will develop Alzheimer disease. Most patients develop AD after the age of 65 years old. The risk of developing AD reaches 50% for individuals beyond age 85. Because more and more people live longer lives this disease is becoming a serious concern. The age-specific incidence rates for Alzheimer disease demonstrate a doubling of incidence for about every six years of added life, which indicates an exponential......

Words: 967 - Pages: 4


...Alzheimer's is not just a disease of old age. Alzheimer's affects people younger than age 65. Up to 5 percent of the more than 5 million Americans with Alzheimer’s have younger-onset. Many people with early onset are in their 40s and 50s. Defined by the Mayo Clinic - Alzheimer's is a irreversible disease that causes the brain cells to degenerate and die causing a steady decline in memory and other important mental functions. It's the most common cause of dementia. Dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning—thinking, remembering, and reasoning—and behavioral abilities — these brain disorders result in the loss of intellectual and social skills and interfere with day-to-day life. Alzheimer's disease is named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer. In 1906, Dr. Alzheimer noticed changes in the brain tissue of a woman who had died of an unusual mental illness. Her symptoms included memory loss, language problems, and unpredictable behavior. After she died, he examined her brain and found many abnormal clumps. Alzheimer’s disease affects approximately 5.3 million people and is ranked 6th for cause of death in America. A question you may ask is can someone die from Alzheimer’s I would have to say yes. Now you are wondering how can one die from memory loss…well typical complications of Alzheimer's are heart attacks, thromboembolisms (blood clots), strokes, kidney failure, and lung infections due to aspiration of food. Multi-organ failure is usually the cause of death in these......

Words: 857 - Pages: 4

Alzheimers Disease

...Discussion of Results 12 Epidemiological information linking type 2 diabetes to AD 16 Insulin-signaling abnormalities in Alzheimer disease affected brain 17 Diabetes drugs in treatment for AD 19 Treatments regimens for type 2 diabetes Mellitus and their potential in treating AD 23 Thiazolidinediones (TZDs). 23 Metformin. 23 Amylin and Leptin analogs. 24 Findings 26 Interpretation of Results 26 Limitations 28 Future Research 29 Conclusion 31 References 32   Abstract Type 2 diabetic drugs could serve as potential in the treating Alzheimer’s disease. AD is a dementia defined by partial or total loss of memory. The risk of development of AD increases with age. Different therapeutic approaches have been employed when it comes to treatment of AD. Results of indicate that diabetic drugs are effective in treating Alzheimer ’s disease. Despite efforts directed at treatment of the condition, the results have not been satisfactory. This could be attributed to the early or late onset of AD pathogenesis while at the same time being underpinned by various mechanisms. There is evidence suggesting the effectiveness of type 2 diabetic drugs in treatment of AD. Research has focused on understanding the possibility of using Type 2 diabetic drugs in the treatment of AD. In this paper, a research review is conducted to expand on the potential use of T2DM diabetic drugs in treating AD. A literature review is being carried out on different papers written by authors. A......

Words: 9399 - Pages: 38

Cancer Drug Shortage

...injected drugs, which are the workhorses of hospitals but are difficult to make and produce little profit for drugmakers. The shortages are caused primarily by problems with sterility and other serious issues that have led to shutdowns of production lines and occasionally entire factories. In addition, consolidation among generic drug manufacturers, as well as manufacturers deciding to end production of marginally profitable drugs, has led to decreased capacity. That means when one manufacturer suddenly stops production, the small number of others making a drug can't quickly pick up slack. A MAJOR PRODUCTION FACILITY OF THE DRUG WAS SHUT DOWN IN NOVEMBER  there are no routine mechanisms in place requiring manufacturers to notify anyone formally that a drug may be entering into a shortage phase, why the drug is entering the shortage phase, and how long it will be in short supply. 2. The FDA said it will temporarily allow importation of a replacement drug for Doxil, a drug for ovarian and other cancers that hasn't been available for new patients for months.  The agency also approved another supplier for a preservative-free version of methotrexate, a crucial drug for children with a type of leukemia calledacute lymphoblastic leukemia and for high-dose treatment of bone cancer. The version with preservatives can be toxic or cause paralysis in children and other patients getting the drug high doses. THE DRUG SHORTAGE PREVENTION ACT Now the FDA is importing the drugs......

Words: 375 - Pages: 2

xXdonavan12Xx | The Walking Dead Season 2 Completed | 시사/다큐