Free Essay

Cholera Outbreak in Haiti

In: Science

Submitted By scdevlaminck
Words 1150
Pages 5
Cholera Outbreak in Haiti On January 12, 2010, a 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck one of the most underdeveloped countries in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti. By January 24th, 52 aftershock quakes measuring 4.5 in magnitude, or greater, shook the area (Pan American). As the area literally calmed down, the Haitian government had estimated 315,000 people died, 300,000 were injured and 1 million were homeless (Pan American). As this country tries to recover from the devastation, people find themselves in poor living conditions. Most of them, even a year later, are living in tents provided by the Pan American Health Organization (the western hemisphere version of the World Health Organization) or in make shift shelters that they have been able to assemble themselves. Living conditions are harsh. Seventy one percent of families, living in these conditions, have at least one family member go without food for one day in the previous week (IJDH). Twenty one percent have no access to drinking water (IJDH). While living under these conditions, sanitation, including adequate bathroom facilities, have not been considered or given proper priority or proper thought this is more than understandable, when one is unsure where the next meal, or drink of water is coming from, an adequate bathroom facility is not of concern. Unfortunately, the area has now come to realize the need for proper sanitation and proper facilities. Cholera is caused by a gram negative bacterium called Vibrio cholera (Nature Review). This bacterium is differentiated serologically on the basis of the O antigen of its lipopolysacchardie (Nature Review). The Cholera toxin producing strains of the O1 and O139 serogroups cause the vast majority of the disease. O1 has 2 biotypes, Classical and El Tor, and each of these has two serotypes, Inaba and Ogawa. The symptoms of the infections are indistinguishable, but higher proportions of persons infected with El Tor biotype remain asymptomatic or only have a mild illness (CDC). Infections with V. cholera produce a large variety of symptoms. V. cholera colonizes the small intestines for twelve to seventy two hours before symptoms are exhibited. Severe symptoms include vomiting and profuse diarrhea, moderate to severe dehydration, causing hypovolaemic shock, and rice watery stools. Symptoms usually begin with stomach cramps and may progress to a loss of one liter of fluid per hour (Nature Review). With the large loss of fluid, this can cause severe fluid depletion and metabolic acidosis (Nature Review). This could lead to circulatory collapse and even death. Other symptoms include rapid heart beat, loss of skin elasticity, dry mucous membranes, low blood pressure, thirst, muscle cramps and restlessness or irritability (CDC). Patients with severe Cholera can develop acute renal failure, electrolyte imbalance and coma. Infected patients produce large amounts of infectious V. Cholera bacteria. Without adequate bathroom facilities, the bacteria contaminate water or food supplies causing more cases (CDC). Cholera transmission is closely related to poor environment management. It spreads mainly thru contaminated water, but has been found in improperly preserved or mishandled food. This includes fish, seafood, milk, ice cream and unpreserved meat. Cholera is not transmitted generally person to person, but can happen due to poor hygiene and sanitation. For rapid detection of V. cholera, dark field microscopy of a stool specimen from a Cholera patient will reveal rapid, darting or shooting-star motility. When a drop of V. cholera antiserum is put on a slide, it rapidly immobilizes the organism (Clinical Microbiology). There are also latex agglutination and PCR tests available. Definitive laboratory diagnosis of cholera requires the isolation of the organism from the patient. Most Vibrio species will grow on thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose agar (TCBS) (Clinical Microbiology). Treatment for patients with Cholera is actually very simple, fluid replacement. Patients are rapidly losing fluid, putting them at risk for electrolyte imbalance, and thus replacement of those fluids is extremely important. Patients that are experiencing mild symptoms can accomplish this with oral rehydration salts, where as patients experiencing severe symptoms will need intravenous fluids. Antimicrobial agents can be administered to shorten the duration of the diarrhea, and therefore reducing fluid loss (CDC). There are two different vaccinations available that provide some protection, Dukoral and Shanchol. The first one is prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO). Dukoral, has been shown to provide short term protection for 85-90% against V. cholera O1 among all ages for 4-6 months after the vaccination is given. The second vaccine is pending WHO qualifications. Shanchol, provides longer term immunization of O1 and O139 in children under five (WHO). The WHO recommends that immunizations should be used in high risk areas along with the recommended control measures. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommends measures to prevent contracting and prevent the spread of Cholera. Those precautions consist of drinking and using safe water, either bottled or boiled water. Wash hands with soap frequently with safe water. Use proper facilities, or latrines (do not use open bodies of water). Cook food properly, keep it covered and wash fruits and vegetables well with safe water. Keep things clean, like the kitchen and kitchen utensils, family washing areas and clothing (CDC). With the current Cholera outbreak in Haiti, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has taken action to prevent the spread of the disease. This organization has help establish 12 cholera treatment centers to support isolation and treatment of infected patients. The PAHO is also supporting the Water and Sanitation Cluster in Haiti, which is providing powdered chlorine for water purification and testing water being distributed to settlement camps. The organization is also taking special efforts to ensure safe water is available in hospitals (WHO). With more than half the deaths from Cholera in Haiti are patients that do not make it to a hospital; the PAHO is mobilizing experts in the proper disposal of bodies in Haiti. The PAHO also has a program called PROMESS- program on essential medicine and supplies-with warehouses currently stocked with medicines and other essential medical supplies, while procuring more from donations from other countries (PAHO).

Work’s Cited

Baron, Ellen Jo; Murray Patrick R.; Pfaller, Michael A.; Tenover, Fred C.; Yolken, Robert H.; “Manual of Clinical Microbiology” 6th ed. 465-471 1995

Camille, Andrew; Caldenwood, Stephen B; Harris, Jason B.; Morris, J. Glenn Jr.; Nelson, Eric J. “Cholera Transmission: The Host, Pathogen and Bacteriophage Dynamic” Nature Reviews:Microbiology Volume 7, October (2009) 693-702 Print.

Center for Disease Control, “2010 Haiti Cholera Outbreak” cdc.gov 2010 Web. 2 Feb 2011

Center for Disease Control, “Cholera; Prevention & Control:, cdc.gov 2010 Web 2 Feb 2011

“Cholera” who.org, World Health Organization n.d. Web 2 Feb 2011

Institute for Justice and Democracy in Haiti (IJDH) and The LAMP for Haiti Foundation “One year after the earthquake-Haitians still living in crisis” Web 2011

Pan American Health Organization “PAHO Responds to Cholera Outbreak in Haiti” www.new.pahp.org Web 2 Feb 2011…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Haiti Earthquake

...Why were so many people killed in the Haiti earthquake of 2010? On the 12th of January 2010 at 16:53 local time, a devastating 7.0 magnitude earthquake had struck near Port au Prince, the capital of Haiti. This earthquake was caused by a plate boundary which had not caused an earthquake for 200 years. Most of the primary impacts of the earthquake included; 3,500,000 people being affected by the quake, 220,000 were estimated to have died, over 300,000 people were injured as well as 188,383 houses being rigorously damaged. 4,000 schools were damaged or destroyed and over 600,000 people left their home area in Port-au-Prince and mostly stayed with host families. After the quake there were 19 million cubic metres of rubble and debris in Port au Prince leaving 1.5 million people homeless. This earthquake has suffered for many years being known as one to cause the most wreckage and disturbance, however why did the strongest earthquake that ever hit earth at a richer scale of 9.5 only kill 1655 people compared to Haiti's death rate at 220,000? Port au Prince, being the capital of Haiti unfortunately endured a lot of the wreckage due to the earthquake. Several of the important governmental structures of Port au Prince were destroyed or damaged, including the Presidential Palace, a parliament building and the Port au Prince Cathedral. Most of the city's community buildings were also destroyed. A large amount of the environmental society was in danger due to the fact of buildings......

Words: 835 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Cholera

...Cholera essay Cholera is a disease caused by a prokaryotic organism called vibrio cholerae, this bacterium has flagellum as it is prokaryotic and contains no unit bound organelles. The bacterium is transmitted through excrement of faeces and if this comes into contact with drinking water, the bacteria can infect people. Bacteria can also spread to food, if people don't wash their hands thoroughly after using the toilet meaning it can be spread from person to person. The symptoms of cholera include; extreme diarrhoea (as much as a litre an hour), vomiting for hours on end, and may also lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance which could then cause death. This is because the cholera bacterium produces a toxin, which affects chloride ion exchange. The toxin causes the chloride ion protein channels in the plasma membranes of the small intestine epithelial cells to open; the chloride ions then move into the lumen of the small intestine, this build up of chloride ions lower the water potential in the lumen. Consequently water moves out of the blood, across the epithelial cells and into the lumen by osmosis, the increase of water secretion in the lumen results in a high amount of water being lost from the body, which is what causes the symptoms. Ways to prevent cholera spreading would be; proper sewage systems, treating water, hygiene such as washing hands after using toilet and preparing food, also covering food which may come into contact the......

Words: 383 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Cholera

...Cholera What is Cholera? • Cholera is a serious bacterial disease that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio Cholerae. • When the bacterium Vibrio Cholerae is in the mucosal epithelium, it produces cholera toxin, which causes massive diarrhea. How is Cholera caused? • Cholera is primarily caused by contaminated water supplies, but it can also be caused by consuming raw shellfish, uncooked fruits and vegetables, and other foods that can harbor the Vibrio Cholerae Bacterium. • Vibrio Cholerae is found naturally in costal waters, and they attach to crustaceans called copepods, and spread to other places. • The bacteria can get into a human, who may not get sick from it, but they can pass it off to another person through their stool, through a method called the fecal-oral route, which occurs when the stool contaminates food and water supplies. The Symptoms • Severe, watery diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps, dehydration, and hypovolemic shock are all symptoms of Cholera. Risk-Factors • People with malnutrition and a compromised immune system are most vulnerable to this disease. Treatment • Treatment should be gotten immediately, because extreme dehydration can become serious and lead to death very fast. • Oral Dehydration Salts, or ORS, is a re-hydration solution issued by the World Health Organization to re-hydrate patients of Cholera. • Also an antibiotic, called azithromycin can cut the symptoms of Cholera in half. Prevention • Cholera can be prevented......

Words: 290 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Haiti

...Health Status and Health Care Services in Haiti with Comparison to the United States Teffanie Cummings DeVry University Introduction to Health Services Management Course Project/ HSM310 April 21, 2014 Dr. Becky Foster OUTLINE TITLE I. Executive Summary * II. Haiti Healthcare Status A. Population without healthcare insurance B. Mortality, Infant mortality data, causes of death C. Healthcare Insurance available to the poor III. Availability of Health Services A. Fundamental Life Insurance B. Red Cross C. Medicaid IV. Expenditures A. Who pays for the healthcare B. Total cost for the healthcare overall C. The Government V. Influences on the health care system A. Cultural influence B. Does society have anything to do with Haiti healthcare? C. What does politics have to do with Haiti healthcare VI. Summary A. What are the biggest healthcare problems in Haiti B. United States healthcare system compared to Haiti healthcare C. What opportunities can be offer to help Haiti healthcare * VII. Conclusion Abstract By every measure found Haiti is known to be the poorest country in the Western hemisphere and that makes they have the worst healthcare system. The can only afford around $85.00 or less per person for healthcare and the population is around 8 million (Whyte, 2010). Healthcare in Haiti is like nonexistent over half the population is unemployed and the...

Words: 2998 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Haiti

...Throughout its history, Haiti represents the epitome of poorly structured developing countries around the world. Furthermore, it has dealt with the same reoccurring situations and has failed to fix them, which only continues to hurt the Haitian people. As one of the poorest countries in the world, Haiti suffers various issues, such as corrupt government, health crises, and natural disasters. Corruption has proven to be a repeating trend in the Haitian government through its lack of a supporting leadership and vile dictatorship from its political officials. Haiti’s most infamous and cruel leader was Francois Duvalier, “Papa Doc”, who was best known for his human rights violations. An example of his horrendous deeds as president was when he would take mulattos and political dissidents and execute them maliciously. Unfortunately, after his reign, his son, known as “Baby Doc”, came into power and continued his father’s actions. Within the parliamentary government, the politicians are biased due to the fixed elections paid off by the Ministry of the Interior. Selfishly, these officials unthinkably stole from their country and people by embezzling money from the government treasury. “This means to say, in this country everything is money. There isn’t value in any other thing”(Gaston) Consequently, the actions of the government explain why Haiti has not developed into a functioning Due to the faults in the Haitian government, there is a numerous amount of economic and social......

Words: 414 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Haitian Cholera Experience

...I went to Haiti in the wake of the Jan. 12, 2010, earthquake, but those weeks treating mostly chronic conditions barely prepared me for my return to the country Nov. 19. This time, I was faced with acutely ill cholera patients requiring immediate life-saving treatment. The deadly outbreak erupted in October, and by the evening of my arrival at J/P Haitian Relief Organization housing in Port-au-Prince, more than 21,000 people were infected, with 1,250 deaths. Early the next morning, J/P HRO co-founder Sean Penn received a call from Paul Farmer, MD, PhD, of Partners in Health, who said, “If you don’t send us any of your doctors and nurses you have available, people will die.” So our team of seven (four nurses, two translators and our driver/security guard) set off on the three-hour drive along broken roads through the beautiful, rugged mountains and countryside to Hopital Ste. Therese in Hinche. I believe we were all shocked by the world we entered. Triage and short-term oral rehydration tents were staffed by Cuban and Mexican physicians and nurses, and three additional tents (men’s, women’s, children’s) and an old church served critical patients requiring IV rehydration. Each facility held up to 24 patients. The cholera treatment center was fenced off, and an attendant sprayed our shoes with a bleach solution upon entering or exiting. The church was downwind from the pit where medical waste, patients’ clothing and trash were burned. The heavy canvas tents had tarp......

Words: 773 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Haiti

...Haiti Haiti is about 10,714 square miles big and is about the same size of Massachusetts. It is located on the island known as Hispaniola in the middle of the Caribbean sea where Haiti takes up the western 1/3 of the island and the Dominican Republic takes up the eastern 2/3. Haiti was inhabited by the indigenous Taino people, and later, it was discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1942. Columbus' ship Santa Maria sank on the north side of what is now Haiti. The Spanish quickly learned that Hispaniola was not rich in gold, but a place they converted to be a farming source for them. African slaves were imported to Hispaniola as early as 1504 to labor the sugar, coffee, and tobacco crops. The Spanish started losing interest in Hispaniola and in the 17th century, French pirates purchased Haiti from the Spanish and this is when the island of Hispaniola was divided into two countries. For the next 100 years, Haiti was becoming one of the wealthiest countries in the world with the cheap slave labor and the amount of resources (sugar, coffee, the die indigo, tobacco, cotton, and exotic spices) they were producing. But the foolish Frenchmen got carried away with their slave workers and had a 10-1 free to slave population with almost 500,000 slaves and only 50,000 free men. The spirit of the French revolution affected Haiti and in 1791, a huge slave revolt broke out and a revolutionary war lasted for more than 10 years. Haiti finally gained its independence in 1804 and became......

Words: 2198 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Cholera

...Cholera * A Passage from India: Cholera * Cholera * Infection of the small intestine that causes a large amount of watery diarrhea * Vomiting * Related to bile * Learned Questions * Nature of the microbe causing cholera * Identifying the name of the causative agent * Origin of the disease * History of discovery of the agent * Pandemics of the disease * Impact f the disease on society * Origin and Spread * Endemic to the Indian subcontinent, with the Ganges River likely serving as a containment reservoir * Disease spread by trade routes (land and sea) to Russia, then to Western Europe, and from Europe to North America * Causes of Cholera * Mortality rate of 50% * The Miasma Theory * Strongly advocated by Max von Petterkofer * Mapped the 1850 epidemic and concluded cases were clustered in low-lying marshlands * Was the impetus behind Florence Nightingale effort to clean, improve, and establish higher standards in nursing * The Poison Theory * Advocated by John Snow * While attending to Cholera patients he didn’t get the disease, therefore it is not airborne miasma * Affect the gut first * Mapped the 1850 outbreak and found clusters of victims around the Broad Street Pump * Proposed cholera is due to toxin in patient feces and transmitted by water * The......

Words: 385 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

John Snow and the Cholera Outbreak

...The Broad Street cholera outbreak was a severe outbreak of cholera that occurred near Broad Street in the Soho district of London, England in 1854. This outbreak is best known for the physician John Snow's study of the outbreak and his discovery that contaminated water, not air, spread cholera. This discovery came to influence public health and the construction of improved sanitation facilities beginning in the 19th century. Later, the term "focus of infection" would be used to describe places like the Broad Street pump in which conditions are good for transmission of an infection. In the mid-19th century, the Soho district of London had a serious problem with filth due to the large influx of people and a lack of proper sanitary services: the London sewer system had not reached Soho. Many cellars (basements) had cesspools underneath their floorboards. Since the cesspools were overrunning, the London government decided to dump the waste into the River Thames. That specific action contaminated the water supply, leading to a cholera outbreak. On 31 August 1854, after several other outbreaks had occurred elsewhere in the city, a major outbreak of cholera reached Soho. John Snow, the physician who eventually linked the outbreak to contaminated water, later called it "the most terrible outbreak of cholera which ever occurred in this kingdom."[1] Over the next three days, 127 people on or near Broad Street died. In the next week, three quarters of the residents had fled the area....

Words: 822 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Humanitarian Aid Haiti

...Risk analysis 1 Intro The world community reacted promptly after the unprecedented disaster in Haiti and thanks to the intentions of many donors or agencies a big amount of money was initially pledged and disbursed. The $5.5 bn that was pledged for the first two years following the earthquake and the additional $9.9 bn which likely to be pledged over the next decade, gained the impression that the country would be rebuilt efficiently. Nevertheless, the progress that has been noticed up to the present has not fulfilled the expectations neither the donors nor the Haitian government and their citizens (Benoit 2012). Even if there is a strategic planning process which is being implemented sufficiently, the Government of Haiti and the agencies who act on place will face some risks. The potential sources of risks that likely to be faced are financial, political, operational - environmental, social. The following table represents thoroughly the potential risk sources, the impact that these will have if occur as well as other details like the likelihood of an event to occur. For instance, the disappointment of donors might lead to a reduction of the amounts that they have committed to fund. Actions like this would be extremely unfavourable for the country due to their impact to the entire strategy plan. Moreover, it is obvious that Haiti, geographically, is placed in a sensitive area. In August 2008 the country was struck by destructive hurricanes and none can......

Words: 820 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

U.N. Worries Troops Caused Haiti’s Cholera

...The latest disaster to hit Haiti, has been the cholera outbreak. The attached article addresses concerns from the United Nations, regarding mounting circumstantial evidences linking the outbreak to the U.N. Peacekeepers from Nepal. The Nepalese base housing 454 U.N. peace keepers located on a waterway called Boukan Kanni, which is a part of the Meile River. This river drains off into the Artibonite River. Haitians living in this rural area complained of the stench coming from behind the base and having spotted waste in the river. During the summer Nepal had outbreaks of cholera; the deployment to Haiti was not until October. No symptoms of the disease were evident in any of the peacekeepers, but 75% of people infected with this disease may not show symptoms and can infect persons for a period of two weeks. These implications are serious with regards to the United Nations. Haiti was hit in 2004 by tropical storm Jeanne killing around 3006 people, in 2008 tropical storm Fay, Hurricanes Gustav, Hanna, and Ike devastated the island leaving untold count of Haitians dead. The country’s most severe earthquake in over 200 years stuck on January 12, 2010. All the above mentioned disasters are acts of God; the cholera epidemic, prior was the Beri-beri epidemic in Haiti’s penitentiary which reportedly was caused by the manufacturing process used in the United States processed rice and the traditional Haitian rice cooking method was killing the young men behind bars and leaving......

Words: 631 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Outbreak

...GPT 1 Task 3 Cassandra Green Bette Bogdan August 23, 2014 Outbreak From April to May 2013 there was a measles outbreak that occurred in a North Carolina community. One unvaccinated person traveling from India back to the United States brought the infection with them. The person belonged to a Hare Krishna community of about 25 families that did not vaccinate for communicable diseases and the result was an outbreak between two counties. Measles is a very contagious respiratory disease spread through droplets from the nose, mouth, and throat that are sprayed out when an infected person coughs or sneezes. One person can infect hundreds. The disease is preventable through vaccination and was officially eliminated in 2000 in the United States but due to more recent views on vaccination there have been more and more cases showing up throughout the country. Epidemiological Indicators A RNA virus that affects only humans causes measles. Measles are so contagious that 90% of people who are not immunized come in contact with someone who has it they will become infected. (Missouri Department of Helth and Senior Services) There is an incubation period of about 10 days with a rash appearing approximately 14 days after exposure. A fever is presents anywhere from 7 to 18 days after exposure. A person is most contagious up until 4 days after the onset of the rash. When a person is suffering from the measles they will have a fever, runny nose, cough, sore throat, malaise, and......

Words: 2057 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Cholera Outbreak in Haiti

...Cholera Outbreak in Haiti Vibrio cholerae is a bacterium that infects the intestines of humans (CDC, 2016). While there are several strains of vibrio cholerae, only two types have been known to cause cholera outbreaks and only one (type O1) is responsible for outbreaks globally (WHO, 2015). Cholera infection is an acute diarrheal disease (CDC, 2016). It is extremely virulent and can affect children and adults with equal severity if left untreated (WHO, 2015). Vibrio cholerae has a short incubation period of 2 to 5 days, an aspect of the disease that leads to severe patterns of outbreaks (WHO, 2015). 80% of individuals infected with the cholera bacterium are asymptomatic (WHO, 2015). However, the bacteria are present in infected individuals’ feces for 1-10 days and are shed back into the environment. Others are at risk for infection when they come in contact with the fecal matter of infected persons (WHO, 2015). Contaminated water is the primary transmission route for cholera (CDC, 2016). Those who do experience symptoms of cholera infection usually experience watery diarrhea, vomiting, and severe leg cramps (CDC, 2016). These symptoms, especially when they’re severe, can lead to extreme dehydration, shock, and death within hours if left untreated (CDC, 2016). Mild cholera is also easily mistaken for other diarrheal illnesses (Harris, et al., 2012). Cholera transmission is associated with a lack of social development, primarily through the disruption or total lack of......

Words: 673 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Cholera Outbreak

...Cholera Outbreak In the case study presented, the outpatient Victoria was experiencing a fever and uncontrollable diarrhea after collecting water for her family out of a river. It is seen that a couple months before she moved, the island of Haiti was hit with an earthquake. After dire circumstances refugees moved not too far to the city of St.Marc where many others were forced to live. Due to the volume of people that moved to the city, many public services were reduced which made the family look to the river for water supply. After a clinic ran a test on Victoria’s stool they found motile, comma shaped, gram negative bacteria. After much research I have concluded that Victoria is suffering from an outbreak due to the microorganism Vibrio cholerae. “The genus Vibrio consists of Gram-negative straight or curved rods, motile by means of a single polar flagellum” (source 1) which was indicated in Victoria’s stool. In most cases this genus is found in most surface water and grows best in sea water. The disease identified is Cholera which is caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae. This disease is mostly found in “places with very poor sanitation” (source 2) and in Victoria’s case she was prone to contaminated river water. As a result, the toxin “increased the release of water” (source 4) in her intestines which made her have diarrhea. Victoria was experiencing symptoms of dehydration and fever because her body was loosing a large amount water and salt. The......

Words: 310 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Haiti

...Haiti Ads by Google Traditional Dress - Women - Authentic Chinese Traditional Dress In $20 Range & No Tax. Buy Online! - www.periwing.com  Marry in Haiti - Amazing Women from Haiti Meet, Date & Marry Your Loved One. - AmoLatina.com  Food And Culture - You can find it on Yahoo! Learn about Food And Culture - Yahoo.com  Business Without Borders - Your Online Source For Global Business Analysis And Insights. - businesswithoutborders.com  Culture Name Haitian Orientation Ads by Google JCPenney® Official Site Shop Our Great Brands at JCPenney. Welcome to the New JCPenney. JCPenney.com/OfficialSite Cultural Traditions Find great deals and save! Compare products, prices & stores www.Shopping.com free people clothing Top Free Clothes Coupons Savings from Free Clothes! www.ShopAtHome.com/FreeClothes Fashion Accessories Hosiery,Footwear,Rainwear,Apparel, Home,Novelty,Jewelry on sale now! www.eretailmall.com Identification. Haiti, a name that means "mountainous country," is derived from the language of the Taino Indians who inhabited the island before European colonization. After independence in 1804, the name was adopted by the military generals, many of them former slaves, who expelled the French and took possession of the colony then known as Saint Domingue. In 2000, 95 percent of the population was of African descent, and the remaining 5 percent mulatto and white. Some wealthy citizens think of themselves as French, but most......

Words: 6088 - Pages: 25

Los Osos Montañeses | 2X Tempered Glass Film Screen Protector For Huawei P8/P9/P10Plus/Lite Honor 8 9 | Thám Tử Lừng Danh Conan chap 717