Circular Nervous System

In: Science

Submitted By rrchris
Words 758
Pages 4
he function of nervous system is to coordinate the activities of our body. It is the control system for all our actions, thinking and behaviour. The nervous system helps all other systems of our body to work together.The nervous system is like a manager inside our body. Its job is to control and coordinate the parts of our body so that they work together, doing their job at the right time.

Our nervous system coordinates muscles so that we can do things which need thinking like reading, writing, cycling or dancing. The nervous system also coordinates things which we don't have to think about, like heart beat and breathing.

The human nervous system receives information from the surroundings, processes it, interprets it and then responds accordingly. The nervous system also passes information from one internal system to another. For example, as soon as we put food in our mouth, it immediately causes the release of saliva from the salivary glands.

The Unit of Nervous System: Neuron :

The units which make up the nervous system are called nerve cells or neurons. So, neuron is the structural and functional unit of the nervous system. We can now say that nervous system is made of special cells called neurons. Neuron is the largest cell in the body (which looks like an electric wire). Neurons contain the same basic parts as any other animal cell but their structure is specially adapted to be able to carry messages over large distances in the body quickly. The neurons carry messages in the form of electrical signals called electrical impulses or nerve impulses.

A neuron (or nerve cell) has three components:

(ii) Dendrites, and

(iii) Axon.

The cell body of a neuron is like a typical animal cell which contains cytoplasm and a nucleus. A number of long and thin fibres are stretching out from the cell body of a neuron. They are called nerve fibres.

The…...

Similar Documents

The Human Body's Nervous System

...of the central nervous system (CNS)? The central nervous system, also known as the CNS, consists of three(3) major components of the human body: * Brain – the brain is made up of three(3) parts: the cerebrum, the diencephalon, and the hindbrain. * Nerve Tissue – this part of the CNS is comprised of neurons, synapses, and neurotransmitters. * Spinal Cord – protected by vertebrae in the back, the spinal cord is made up of fiber tracts and spinal nerves. (Pedersen DD; PsychNotes: Clinical Pocket Guide, 3rd ed, F.A. Davis Company, 2011, Ch. 9, pg. 1) One of the two major divisions of the human body’s nervous system, the central nervous system is responsible for integrating sensory information and responding accordingly. In other words, its job is to get information from the body and send out instructions to the body. * What is the job of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)? The peripheral nervous system, or PNS, is made up of two(2) components of the human body: * Afferent System – this system is made up of somatic and visceral sensory neurons. * Efferent System – this part of the PNS controls the somatic nervous system (somatic motor neurons), as well as the parasympathetic nervous system, both of which are made up visceral motor neurons. (Pedersen DD; PsychNotes: Clinical Pocket Guide, 3rd ed, F.A. Davis Company, 2011, Ch. 9, pg. 2) The other major division of the human body’s nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, consists......

Words: 741 - Pages: 3

Nervous System

...There is no cure for the disease, which worsens as it progresses, and eventually leads to death. The cause and progression of Alzheimer's disease are not well understood. Research indicates that the disease is associated with plaques and tangles in the brain. It was first described by German psychiatrist and neuropathology’s Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and was named after him. Most often, AD is diagnosed in people over 65 years of age, although the less-prevalent early-onset Alzheimer's can occur much earlier. In 2006, there were 26.6 million sufferers worldwide. Alzheimer's is predicted to affect 1 in 85 people globally by 2050. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XFcmuRgOWQU Parkinson’s disease is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease result from the death of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain; the cause of this cell death is unknown. Early in the course of the disease, the most obvious symptoms are movement-related; these include shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement and difficulty with walking and gait. Later, cognitive and behavioral problems may arise, with dementia commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease. Other symptoms include sensory, sleep and emotional problems. PD is more common in the elderly, with most cases occurring after the age of 50....

Words: 327 - Pages: 2

Nervous Systems, Function and Survival

... Nervous systems, function and survival Invertebrates and vertebrates are compiled of many different cells, systems and functioning pathways all of which are maintained by homeostasis. In this essay I will discuss the connection between homeostasis and the nervous system; briefly compare an invertebrates and vertebrates nervous system; nerve cells and how an organism’s behaviour can be determined by these factors. To survive every living organism endeavours to maintain a sense of balance, or homeostasis. This is an internal process which repairs and sustains different parameters and is constantly challenged by both internal and external factors. An organism’s nervous system, which can control thousands of activities simultaneously (both voluntary and involuntary), transmits signals between the different parts of the body and is responsible for regulating the processes which maintain homeostasis. (Datta et al. 2006 pp.8-10) In invertebrates the nervous system consists of either a nerve net (such as in jellyfish) or neurons grouped together forming ganglia which make up the nerve cord, or CNS of the organism (as found in earthworms). (Datta et al. 2006 pp.47-9) In contrast the nervous system in vertebrates can be divided into two parts, the brain (the control centre of the body) and the spinal cord, collectively known as the central nervous system (CNS) and all the other nerves in the body, collectively known as the peripheral nervous system (PNS). (Datta......

Words: 884 - Pages: 4

Central Nervous System

...The nervous system has two parts known as the central and peripheral nervous systems. While the CNS include the brain and the spinal cord the PNS are the sensory neurons and nerves that connect them together. The human central nervous system is made up of the spinal cord and brain. The nerve cells are working between the brain. The spinal cord acts as a signal between the brain and the rest of the body and it controls the musculoskeletal reflexes without help from the brain. The brains responsibility as it's connected to the CNS is to coordinate body functions, consciously and unconsciously. Thinking and feeling are parts of the complex function. The anatomical features shared with the brain and spinal cord of the CNS is encased in the bones. The brain located in the cranium and the spinal cord runs in the canal through the vertebrae. The CNS is like a computer and interprets information from our eyes(sight), ears(sound), nose(smell), tongue( taste), and skin(touch). Without our spinal cord our body and brain would have no communication. This could be caused by injury to the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the nervous system that contains the nervous system that contains the nerves that lie outside the. Enteral nervous system. It's primary role is to connect the CNS to the organs, limbs, and skin, extending from the CNS to the outermost areas of the body. The PNS two parts consist of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems (SNS and ANS)...

Words: 333 - Pages: 2

Nervous System Outline

...Chapter 9 Nervous System Nervous System Function: The nervous system is composed of neurons and neuroglia. _____sensory_______ _______receptors______ at the ends of peripheral nerves gather information and convert it into nerve impulses. When sensory impulses are integrated in the brain as _______sensations_______, this is the integrative function of the nervous system. Conscious or subconscious decisions follow, leading to motor functions via ______effectors________. | The Central Nervous System is made up of the ____brain_________ and ______spinal cord______ ______________. | The Peripheral Nervous System is made up of the _____spinal_________ and ________cranial__________ nerves. | Neuroglial Cells fill spaces, support neurons, provide structural frameworks, produce myelin, and carry on phagocytosis. Four are found in the ________________ and the last in the __________________. _______________________ cells are small cells that phagocytize bacterial cells and cellular debris. ________________________form myelin in the brain and spinal cord. __________________ are near blood vessels and support structures, aid in metabolism, and respond to brain injury by filling in spaces. ________________cover the inside of ventricles and form choroid plexuses within the ventricles. ______________________ cells are the myelin-producing neuroglia of the peripheral nervous system. | ......

Words: 1869 - Pages: 8

Nervous System

...The Central Nervous System The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord.The brain is made of three main parts: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. The forebrain consists of the cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalamus .The midbrain consists of the tectum and tegmentum. The hindbrain is made of the cerebellum, pons and medulla. Most the time the midbrain, pons, and medulla are called to go together as the brainstem.The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections, called lobes , the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe. The frontal lobe is the cause with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving. The parietal lobe is associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli. The occipital lobe has to do with visual processing. The temporal lobe is associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech.A deep furrow divides the cerebrum into two halves, known as the left and right hemispheres. The two hemispheres look mostly symmetrical yet it has been shown that each side functions slightly different than the other. Sometimes the right hemisphere is associated with creativity and the left hemispheres is associated with logic abilities. The corpus callosum is a bundle of axons which connects these two hemispheres.Nerve cells......

Words: 692 - Pages: 3

Nervous System

...Task 211.4.4-01-05, 07-09, 11 Nervous System Organization of Nerve Tissue Lab Exercise 1: The Multipolar Neuron A. What is the function of a neuron? Neurons carry and transmit electrical impulses generated by both internal and external stimuli. B. What is the difference between a neuron and a nerve? Neurons are the cells that exchange messages from the internal and external environments. Nerves consist of many neurons that transmit different signals to the brain. They form structural and functional units of the nervous system made up of neurons. C. What gives a multipolar neuron its name? It is named multipolar because of the multiple branches, processes, and extensions that stem off the cell bodies. D. What are the functions of the dendrites and axons? Dendrites receive incoming signals for the nerve cell. Axons carry outgoing signals of the cells to other cells in the body. Exercise 2: Structures of selected neurons A. Which slide contained bipolar neurons? The pyramidal cell slide. B. Which slide contained unipolar neurons? The dorsal root ganglion slide. C. What was unique about the dorsal root ganglion compared to the other two slides? The dorsal root ganglion was more round in shape compared to the perkinje and pyramidal cell slides. The nissle substance, nucleus, and satellite......

Words: 1429 - Pages: 6

Sensory and Nervous System

... Sensory and Nervous System The sensory and nervous system becomes much more complex as one moves through the phyla of the animal kingdom. From phylum placozoa to phylum Chordata, the sensory and nervous systems gradually get more and more involved. Phylum Placozoa consists of only one known species, Trichoplax adhaerens (Nielson, 2001, p. 48). Made up of only a few thousand cells, and generally only 2 mm across, this species does not even seem as though it should be considered part of the animal kingdom at all (Campbell, 2005, p. 639). This “flat organism creeps on algae” and has been found in warm waters from all over the world (Nielson, 2001, p. 48). The placozoans are thought to be a sister group to the eumetazoans because they have similar features, however, “the complete lack of a nervous system sets Trichoplax aside from eumetazoans” (Nielson, 2001, p. 50). Due to the fact that this animal “exhibits limited specialization and organization of cells,” placozoans do not have any sensory or nervous system (Sumich, 2004, p. 132). [pic] Phylum Porifera is more commonly known as sponges. “Sponges are simple, sessile animals that lack true tissues” (Campbell, 2005, p. 639). Sponges do not have a specific system or group of organs and cells that make up a nervous system. Although sponges lack a nervous system, epithelial cells play an important role in the conduction of stimuli (Floreano, 1999, p. 237). “There is no system of coordination, so the responses......

Words: 1957 - Pages: 8

Nervous System

...The Nervous System and Special Senses Abstract This paper contains a brief discussion on the overview of the nervous system and the organs that play a major role in the system. It goes into further detail of the nervous system by separating into the central nervous systems and its functions, the peripheral nervous system and its two branches under the system; including what it is responsible for and briefly how it works. The paper then discusses the special senses. It focuses on the eyes and ears and how they function to perform their major duties. The Nervous System and Special Senses One of the most complicated systems of the body, the nervous system is responsible for many different body functions. It is composed of two primary cell types-neurons and neuroglia. The neurons are responsible for transmitting impulses to different parts of the body. The neurons are usually identified by the way they travel, such as afferent (sensory) - moving toward the brain or spinal cord, or efferent (motor) -moving away from the brain or spinal cord (Nervous System and Special Senses). The neuron is a special structure in itself. It is composed of a cell body, a nucleus, dendrites, axons, and a myelin sheath. The dendrites carry impulses to the cell body, while the axons carry the impulses from the cell body and out to muscles, glands and other dendrites. Neuroglia is much simpler than neurons. Their main function is to support the neurons and bind them to other neurons or......

Words: 1487 - Pages: 6

The Human Nervous System

...NERVOUS SYSTEM The nervous system is the complex network of nerves and cells that carry messages to and from the brain and spinal cord to various parts of the body. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM The Central NS is made up of the brain and spinal cord BRAIN The brain lies within the skull and is shaped like a mushroom.  The brain consists of four principal parts: * the brain stem * the cerebrum * the cerebellum * the diencephalon The brain weighs approximately 1.3 to 1.4 kg. It has nerve cells called the neurons and supporting cells called the glia. There are two types of matter in the brain:  grey matter and white matter.  Grey matter receives and stores impulses.  Cell bodies of neurons and neuroglia are in the grey matter.  White matter in the brain carries impulses to and from grey matter.  It consists of the nerve fibers or the axons. * The brain stem The brain stem is also known as the Medulla oblongata. It is located between the pons and the spinal cord and is only about one inch long. * The cerebrum The cerebrum forms the bulk of the brain and is supported on the brain stem.  The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres.  Each hemisphere controls the activities of the side of the body opposite that hemisphere.  The hemispheres are further divided into four lobes: * Frontal lobe * Temporal lobes * Parietal lobe * Occipital lobe * The cerebellum This is located behind and below the cerebrum.  * The diencephalon ...

Words: 850 - Pages: 4

The Nervous System

...The Nervous System Noradrenaline - Noradrenaline is a hormone that is produced naturally by the body. It is synthesized and released by the central nervous system, and also by a division of the autonomic nervous system called the sympathetic nervous system. Norepinephrine acts on target cells by binding to and activating noradrenergic receptors located on the cell surface. It is the main neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nerves in the cardiovascular system and is released as a response to stress. Function: The sympathetic nervous system triggers a response that is commonly referred to as our 'fight or flight response.' When faced with a dangerous situation, our body needs to decide whether to stay and face the problem, or run away. So, In order to make our body work as efficiently as possible, norepinephrine causes several changes in our body function. These include the following: 1. An increase in the amount of oxygen going to our brain - this helps us think clearer and faster. 2. An increase in our heart rate - this pumps more blood around our body, helping our muscles work faster and more efficiently. 3. An increase in glucose (or sugar) release - this additional sugar gives our muscles something to 'feed on,' which helps them work better and faster. 4. An increase in breathing rate - when we breathe faster, we are delivering more oxygen to the body and brain. This helps our entire body work better. 5. A shutting down of metabolic......

Words: 843 - Pages: 4

The Nervous System

...Chapter 12 The Nervous System All neural tissue in the body Neurons send(motor) and receive (sensory) signals Neuroglia support and protect neurons 1. Central Nervous System- (CNS) brain and spinal cord; process and coordinate sensory (internal and external data) motor commands(control peripheral organs), higher function of brain ( intelligence, memory, learning and emotions) 2. Peripheral Nervous System- (PNS) a;; neural tissue outside the CNS. Delivers sensory( input) info to the CNS carry motor (output) commands to peripheral tissues and systems. Nerves are bundles of axons with connective tissue and blood vessels Function Division of PNS Afferent- from PNS sensory receptors (detect stimuli or change) to CNS-access Efferent- from (motor commands) CNS to PNS muscles and glands(effectors)-exit 1. Somatic Nervous System (SNS)- voluntary and involuntary (reflexes) muscle contractions 2. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)- self regulating a. Sympathetic- flight or fight stimulating effect b. Parasympathetic- rest and digest relaxing effect Neurons Structure a. Multipolar several dendrites 1 axon; Bipolar 1 dendrite and 1 axon; Unipolar 1 dendrite and 1 axon b. Cell body contains DNA (protein), nissil bodies for protein synthesis occurs and it ha dense areas of RER and ribosomes (make gray matter), dendrites that receive info. From other neurons, axon long tail that carries electrical signal (action potentials), axoplasm the......

Words: 804 - Pages: 4

Intro Nervous System

...Lab #12. The Nervous system. Sensorimotor transformations. EPPS BIOE 2101 Spring 2016 INTRODUCTION The nervous system “is” you. Nervous cells transform signals from the outside world into “spikes,” voltage changes, or chemical signals, perform transformations on these signals, and then may turn on muscles. Muscles, in turn, cause behavior: a smile, or moving across the room. Your nervous system is responsible for your interaction with the world, from sensing it to acting upon it. | Parts of the nervous system: the spinal cord, motor neurons, and sensory neurons. Sense organs in muscles transmit sensory information to spinal cord interneurons, that connect to motor neurons, that in turn activate muscles. (Adapted from Kandell et al., 2000). | | Parts of the nervous system: the spinal cord, motor neurons, and sensory neurons. Sense organs in muscles transmit sensory information to spinal cord interneurons, that connect to motor neurons, that in turn activate muscles. (Adapted from Kandell et al., 2000). | Neurons – The cellular building block of the nervous system is the neuron. These cells are typically excitable: they can “spike,” a process by which their membrane voltage quickly changes, and they transmit information. Neurons can transduce signals from the outside world into spikes, transmit spikes to each other via connections called “synapses,” and connect to muscles, in order to turn the muscle on and make it contract. When spikes happen in......

Words: 1417 - Pages: 6

Nervous System

...Name________________________________Block_____Date______________________ Ch 7 The Nervous System Notes Lisa Peck I. Organization of the Nervous System (pp 222-224) Nervous system- the master controlling and communicating system of the body 3 functions: 1. sensory receptors to monitor changes occurring inside & outside body stimuli- changes sensory input- gathered information 2. processes and interprets the sensory input integration- nervous system makes decisions about what should be done 3. effects a response by activating muscles or glands (effectors) via motor output Regulating and Maintaining Homeostasis nervous system - fast-acting control via electrical impulses endocrine system- slow-acting control via hormones release into the blood Structural Classification (p 223) 2 subdivisions: Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System 1. Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of: brain spinal cord functions: integrating center.........interpret incoming sensory information command center..........issue instructions based on past experience & current conditions 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) consists of: nerves 2 types: cranial nerves- carry impulses to and from the brain spinal nerves- carry impulses to and from the spinal cord ganglia- groups of nerve cell bodies function: communication lines, linking all parts of the body Functional Classification 2 (pp 223-224) only deals with peripheral nervous system (PNS) 1.......

Words: 2870 - Pages: 12

Nervous System

...to a specialist for further evaluation of a nervous system disorder. Outline characteristics of the disease each patient is suffering from by answering the questions associated with each case study. Answer in your own words. Case Study 1 Name | Myelin S. Heath | Patient # | 12312312 | DOB: | 03/05/1986 | Physician | Dr. Delgadillo | Date: | 02/16/20XX | Interoffice Referral Form Ray D. Ology, M.D. A Doctor’s Office, North Campus 1515 N. Medical Plaza #151 Anytown, Anywhere 12345 Dear Ray, Myelin visited my office yesterday complaining of numbness in his right leg and face. He has also been experiencing muscle weakness and mild depression. I noticed a delay in his visual response in both eyes. I have referred Myelin to your facility because of possible multiple sclerosis, and I am requesting an MRI of the brain and spine. Please fax the results to me as soon as possible. Regards, Ruben Delgadillo, M.D. Answer the following questions. 1. What could have caused Myelin’s disease? The symptoms discovered, such as delayed visual response and muscle weakness would lead me to think that the mylelin, which forms a sheath around the neutron, has deteriorated and is causing a decrease in impulse velocity and is impairing functions. This degeneration is causing a misfire of incomplete impulses. So, the deterioration in the cause of the disease. 2. What structure(s) and function(s) of the nervous system are affected by multiple sclerosis? ......

Words: 411 - Pages: 2

4,641,600 06:13 Selalu Ada Hanin Dhiya | Idris Elba | Adobe Illustrator CC 2015 19.0.0 (64-Bit) + Crack