Connecting Isaac Newton with Einstein’s Theory of Relativity

In: Historical Events

Submitted By heatherpotts05
Words 706
Pages 3
Connecting Isaac Newton with Einstein’s Theory of Relativity
Isaac Newton was perhaps the most influential scientist of all time; Newton (1642-1727) took the current theories on astronomy a step further and formulated an accurate comprehensive model of the workings of the universe based on the law of universal gravitation. Newton explained his theories in the 1687 revolutionary work called simply the Principia. This work also went a long way toward developing calculus as well. Albert Einstein, most famously known as a physicist, was a contributor to the scientific world with his many known researches and humanitarian work. As a Nobel Prize Winner in 1921, his chronicled and more important works include Special Theory of Relativity (1905), Relativity (English Translation, 1920 and 1950), General Theory of Relativity (1916), Investigations on Theory of Brownian Movement (1926), and The Evolution of Physics (1938). Isaac Newton’s discoveries paved the way for the creation of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, which eventually lead the way for how science currently views time, space, energy, and gravity.
Classical relativity; refined by Sir Isaac Newton, involves a simple transformation between a moving object and an observer in another inertial frame of reference. The application of Newton's mechanics to continuously distributed masses led necessarily to the discovery and application of partial differential equations, which in turn supplied the language in which alone the laws of the theory of fields could be expressed. In this formal connection also Newton's conception of the differential law forms the first decisive step to the subsequent development.
The problem with this is that light was believed, in the majority of the 1800s, to propagate as a wave through a universal substance known as the ether, which would have counted as a separate frame of reference.…...

Similar Documents


...them more easily. Relativity: The Special and General Theory Albert Einstein Relativity: The Special and General Theory Albert Einstein Relativity The Special and General Theory Written: 1916 (this revised edition: 1924) Source: Relativity: The Special and General Theory © 1920 Publisher: Methuen & Co Ltd First Published: December, 1916 Translated: Robert W. Lawson (Authorised translation) Transcription/Markup: Brian Basgen Convertion to PDF: Sjoerd Langkemper Offline Version: Einstein Reference Archive ( 1999 Preface Part I: The Special Theory of Relativity 01. Physical Meaning of Geometrical Propositions 02. The System of Co−ordinates 03. Space and Time in Classical Mechanics 04. The Galileian System of Co−ordinates 05. The Principle of Relativity (in the Restricted Sense) 06. The Theorem of the Addition of Velocities employed in Classical Mechanics 07. The Apparent Incompatability of the Law of Propagation of Light with the Principle of Relativity 08. On the Idea of Time in Physics 09. The Relativity of Simultaneity 10. On the Relativity of the Conception of Distance 11. The Lorentz Transformation 12. The Behaviour of Measuring−Rods and Clocks in Motion 13. Theorem of the Addition of Velocities. The Experiment of Fizeau 14. The Hueristic Value of the Theory of Relativity 15. General Results of the Theory 16. Expereince and the Special Theory of Relativity 17. Minkowski's Four−dimensial Space Part II: The General Theory of Relativity 18. Special and......

Words: 33175 - Pages: 133

Albert Einstein’s Contribution to Quantum Mechanics

...Michael Byrd GE 253 Physics Albert Einstein’s Contribution to Quantum Mechanics Albert Einstein was one of the greatest minds in world history. Einstein is known as a brilliant physicist who contributed more to the scientific world than any other person. His theories on relativity paved the way for how science currently views time, space, energy, and gravity. Einstein was so advanced in his thinking that his studies and work set the standards for the control of scientific energy and space explorations currently being studied in the field of astrophysics. Albert Einstein's most noted contribution to the world is his theory of relativity. By 1902, Einstein was working on combining time and space, matter and energy. In 1905 when he was only 26 years old, he published a paper on relativity. This paper showed mathematically that the speed of light is constant and not relative to its source or to the viewer. Einstein had actually written an essay when he was only 16 years old on relativity, which became the basis for his published paper. The greatest result of relativistic physics was Einstein's famous relation, E=mc2. In this, he was able to prove that any increase in the energy, E, of a body must lead to a corresponding increase in its mass, m, these increases being related by a factor c2 , where c represents the velocity of...

Words: 315 - Pages: 2

Basic Relativity Péter Hraskó Basic Relativity An Introductory Essay ´ Emeritus Professor at University of Pecs, Hungary 123 Péter Hraskó University of Pécs H-7633 Pécs Szántó Kovács János u. 1/b Hungary e-mail: ISSN 2191-5423 ISBN 978-3-642-17809-2 DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-17810-8 Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht London New York Ó Péter Hraskó 2011 e-ISSN 2191-5431 e-ISBN 978-3-642-17810-8 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Violations are liable to prosecution under the German Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. Cover design: eStudio Calamar, Berlin/Figueres Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media ( Preface Traditional presentations of relativity theory start with......

Words: 45914 - Pages: 184

Isaac Newton

...At his death on 20 March 1727,[1] Isaac Newton left papers relating to all areas of the intellectual pursuits he had followed since arriving at Trinity College, Cambridge, in the summer of 1661.[2] His friend, relative by marriage (to Newton's half-niece Catherine Barton) and successor at the Mint, John Conduitt, posted a bond for Newton's debts and claimed entitlement to this material, Newton having died intestate. The appraisers, Comyns and Ward, felt that only the papers later published as Newton's Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended were fit to be published, and they valued the work at £250.[3] Between 20 and 26 May 1727, Thomas Pellet drew up an inventory listing 81 items of which he considered only five fit to be printed, namely no. 33 ('de Motu Corporum or the liber secundus, in 56 half sheets in folio');[4] no. 38 ('31 half sheets in folio being paradoxical questions concerning Athanasius');[5] no. 61 ('an imperfect mathematical tract');[6] no. 80 ('an abstract of the Chronology being 12 half sheets in folio & the Chronology being 92 half sheets in folio'),[7] and no. 81 ('40 half sheets in folio being the History of the Prophecies in 10 chapters & part of the 11th unfinished').[8] As is evident from a number of manuscripts adorned with Conduitt's notes and corrections -- for example the manuscript of 'An historical account of two notable corruptions of Scripture in a Letter to a Friend' (now New College, Oxford, Ms. 361.4) -- he took a serious scholarly......

Words: 1241 - Pages: 5

Life and Work of Isaac Newton

...Sir Isaac Newton, who is considered as one of the greatest fathers of modern science was born December, 25th, 1642 at Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, England shortly after his father Isaac Newton I had passed away. Newton faced a more troubled childhood than most of his peers. As his father died prior to his birth, he was raised by his grandmother and had a quarrelsome relationship with his step-father. Newton attended at local primary grammar institutions prior to attending Cambridge University, in 1661. Newton graduated in 1665. When Cambridge University closed for two years as an outcome of the plague, Newton returned to his birthplace, Woolsthorpe, and begun an era of deep study and in a variety of scientific areas, including astronomy, mathematics and mechanics (Westfall, 2010). In 1667 Newton returned to Cambridge to complete a Master of Arts degree. Newton developed a close relationship with Professor Isaac Barrow, who was the Lucasian chair in mathematics at Cambridge. Borrow advocated Newton's research in Mathematics, and as a result Newton was appointed mathematics professor in 1669. (Westfall, 2010). In 1696 Newton was appointed Master of the Mint, the highest position within the English Royal Mint and he departed Cambridge for London (Westfall, 2010). In his later ages Newton expended his time studying alchemy and theology. Although Newton stopped most of his scientific experiments, he was regarded as the dean of English science and was elected President of the......

Words: 638 - Pages: 3

Isaac Newton

...Egyptians clocks were much different from ours as well. There were two types of clocks in Ancient Egypt—a water clock and a sundial. A water clock sounds very complicated, but really it’s not. It is a little stand with a pot on the top of the stand and a pot at the bottom of the stand. The pot at the top of the stand had a hole drilled in the side. This pot was then filled with water and the water would flow out of the top pot down to the bottom pot. When the water was at a certain level, it was a certain time. The only disadvantage to the water clock was that you had to keep refilling it. The sundial was basically a circle with numbers written around it with a little stick in the middle. When the stick’s shadow fell at a certain number, it was that time. One big advantage the water clock had over the sundial was you couldn’t use the sundial at night and the water clock you could. The characteristics of ancient Egyptians are indicated by a set of artifacts and customs that lasted for thousands of years. The Egyptians invented and used many basic machines, such as the ramp and the lever, to aid construction processes. They used rope trusses to stiffen the beam of ships. Egyptian paper, made from papyrus, and pottery was mass produced and exported throughout the Mediterranean basin. The wheel, however, did not arrive until foreign invaders introduced the chariot in the 16th century BC. The Egyptians also played an important role in developing Mediterranean maritime......

Words: 370 - Pages: 2

I Have a Theory

...I Have A Theory The study of the universe as a whole is Cosmology. Although easy to label, it is not easy to explain. The foundation of modern cosmology can be described as an arrangement of observations, hypotheses, theories using science, technology, mathematics, physics, and analytics (to name a few) to strive for answers about our beginning, present, and future. Through time, many types of people have created stories, myths, and ideas of how we came to be. Until the nineteenth and twentieth century, the evolution of theories was slow. According to Shipper, “New telescopic devices permitting people to see parts of the universe never before imagined, in new ways never before conceived, have advanced man's theoretical capabilities on explaining the origin of the universe, a task that has been a part of intelligent man's life for thousands of years” (para 1, n.d.). As our technology advances, we are able to answer questions. Going back a few centuries to a time of revelation to Nicholas Copernicus, he had a revolutionary idea that paved the way of thinking that the sun was the center of our universe. His proposal published in 1543, a book titled, “On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres.” Johannes Kepler, the first astrophysicist, discovered that the planets revolve around the sun in ellipses. This gave birth to the laws of planetary motion. Isaac Newton supported Kepler’s suggestions that planets were kept in orbit by a force, by showing that the same force that keeps......

Words: 1408 - Pages: 6

Newtons Law

...velocity is zero), or it moves in a straight line with constant speed (if its velocity is nonzero). 2.Second law: The acceleration a of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force F acting on the body, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass m of the body, i.e., F = ma. 3.Third law: When two bodies interact by exerting force on each other, these forces (termed the action and the reaction) are equal in magnitude, but opposite in direction. The three laws of motion were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published in 1687.[5] Newton used them to explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems.[6] For example, in the third volume of the text, Newton showed that these laws of motion, combined with his law of universal gravitation, explained Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Overview Isaac Newton (1643-1727), the physicist who formulated the laws Newton's laws are applied to bodies (objects) which are considered or idealized as a particle, in the sense that the extent of the body is neglected in the evaluation of its motion, i.e., the object is small compared to the distances involved in the analysis, or the deformation and rotation of the body is of no importance in the analysis. Therefore, a planet can be idealized as a particle for analysis of its orbital motion around a star. In their original form, Newton's laws of motion are......

Words: 415 - Pages: 2

Isaac Newton

...Isaac Newton was born on December 25, 1642 in Lincolnshire, England. His father had died two months before his birth. When he was three, Newton’s mother got remarried, and he stayed with his grandmother. He was not interested in the family farm, so he was sent to Cambridge University to study. Isaac Newton explained the workings of the universe through mathematics. He formulated laws of motion and gravitation. These laws are math formulas that explain how objects move when a force acts on them. Isaac Newton used three laws to explain the way objects move. They are often called Newton’s Laws. The first law states that an object at rest will remain at rest unless acted upon by a nonzero force. An object moving at a constant velocity will continue moving at a constant velocity unless acted upon by a nonzero force. In other words, an object that is not being pushed or pulled by some force will stay still, or will keep moving in the same direction at a steady speed. The tendency of an object to remain still, or keep moving in one direction at a steady speed is called inertia. The second law explains that an object’s acceleration depends on its mass and on the net force acting on it. Basically, it explains how a force acts on an object. An object accelerates in the direction the force is moving it. The third law states that if an object exerts a force on another object, then the second object exerts a force of equal strength in the opposite direction on the first object.......

Words: 597 - Pages: 3

Research Paper on Theory of Relativity

...Albert Einstein’s relativity theory is a set of two theories in physics: the theory of special relativity and general relativity. The central idea in both theories is that two observers moving relative to each other, usually measuring different ‘time’ and ‘room interval’ for the same events, but the laws of physics apply equally to both. Special relativity, developed in 1905, takes into account only observers in uniform motion relative to one another. The theory postulates that the speed of light in vacuum is the same for all observers. This leads to the redefinition of such fundamental concepts as time, space, mass, energy, and momentum with far reaching consequences. Moving objects seem to be heavier and shorter in the direction of motion relative to the observer, and watches seem correspondingly slower. You can get research paper writing help on Theory of Relativity now! It is often misunderstood that a body at high speed have greater mass, which is not the case. Light (actually photons) have momentum. The speed of light appears as an upper speed limit for matter and information. Mass and energy are considered as equivalent, two sides of the same coin. This can be described by the famous equation E = mc². Two events that an observer believes are concurrent, are perceived as non- concurrent by an observer moving relative to the first observer. The theory does not account for gravitational effects. The mathematical foundation of special relativity is the Lorentz......

Words: 538 - Pages: 3

Sir Isaac Newton

... Sir Isaac Newton Student’s Name Institution’s Name Sir Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton was born in the year 1642 on December 25th. The person who raised Sir Isaac Newton was his grandmother. His country of birth was England in Lincolnshire at Woolsthorpe, it is still in this region that he attended a free grammar school, later on in the year 1661 he joined Cambridge University. During his life in college he developed an immense interest in astronomy, physics and mathematics. He was elected in 1669 as a Lucasian Professor of Mathematics, while before in the year 1667, he had been elected as a Fellow of the Trinity College. Most of his years, he spent lecturing at the Cambridge University until the year 1696 when he moved to London (Krull & Kulikov, 2006). According to Krull and Kulikov (2006), during his college life, Newton used to write the ideas he conceived in a journal. Some of the ideas included gravity, forces and the lights diffraction. His ideas were excellent, a thing that made him to be knighted in the year 1705 by Queen Anne. His ideas had an impact that revolutionized the world and made and laid the foundation that has been adapted by modern science. He was a physicist, philosopher and mathematician. He is remembered as one of the greatest intellects of science of all time During that time, he as a firm opponent of King James 11 due to the kings interest and plans to transform......

Words: 640 - Pages: 3

Einstein Theory of Relativity

...Will Einstein's 1905 theory of relativity - one of the most fundamental pillars of physics - that underpins "nothing can travel faster than light-300,000 kms, or 186,000 miles, per second" be proved wrong? The speculations started coming after scientists at the world's largest physics lab CERN claim to have clocked sub-atomic particles or neutrinos travelling faster than the speed of light. European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN, near Geneva, says a neutrino beam shot off from a particle accelerator near Geneva to a lab 730 km away in Italy, whooshed 60 nanoseconds faster than light, with a speed of 186,282 miles per second. But, how could the fact be ignored that Einstein's theory has been tested thousands of times over the past 106 years? And, only recently have here been just slight hints that the behaviour of some elementary particles of matter might not fit into it. How could the fact be ignored that Einstein's theory has been tested thousands of times over the past 106 years? If the findings by the CERN are correct, it would force an overhaul of the fundamental laws of nature and how the universe works. These particles are 6 km/second faster than light, which is strange because 100 years ago, Einstein suggested nothing can go faster than light. If these scientists are right and Einstein was wrong, whatever we know about our Universe will soon be turned on its head. "The feeling that most people have is this can't be right, this can't be real,"......

Words: 430 - Pages: 2

Isaac Newton and Religion

...Abstract When reading about Isaac Newton, he is presented as a physicist and mathematician. One whom through his exquisite work formulated, amongst other; the laws of motion, universal gravity, and is considered one of the founders of calculus. Although his work has been widely accepted as major stepping stones in what became known as the scientific revolution, the significance of religion in Isaac’s life can often be overshadowed by his accomplishments. This paper seeks to explore the religious views of Isaac Newton and how these views helped shape him into the legendary scientist he was to become. In order to understand the significance of Isaac Newton the Christian, we must first indulge ourselves in the times that he lived his life. His views tended to steer away from popular belief, which forced him to become very private and elusive about his faith. But, if we are to understand how a mind like Newton’s could change the course of history, we must begin with the man behind the book, and the religious views that drove him. Keywords: Newton, Christianity, Science, Heresy, Principa Isaac Newton and Religion Isaac Newton, the Christian Despite being born into an Angelistic household, Isaac Newton never seemed to be overly fond of attending church or strictly following the Angelic faith. He even went so far as to at a point question the King James Bible on, amongst other things, the “three in heaven”, as he claimed that the older Greek Bibles did not mention such a......

Words: 1319 - Pages: 6

Connecting Sociological Theory and Social Issues

...| Connecting Sociological Theory and Social Issues | SOCS185 - Professor S. Izquierdo | | Education has been the key and structure of everyone’s life and future. Without education, where does one start to learn experience and evolve into a future of brilliance and success? Education, for the most part, is free and only requires the willingness to learn; however, once you get to the age and stage where you want to advance in a certain career or profession, money will be needed to further go on. Many of which can be viewed and analyzed in various theoretical perspectives, such as: a functionalist’s view, a conflict view, and an interactionist’s view. From the perspective of a functionalist, “functionalists emphasize the contribution it makes to overall social stability.” (Schaefer, 2011, p. 17). Basically, in terms of education, a functionalist would regard it as almost religious institution to reinforce values of society to maintain stability. We’ll use college sororities as an example. With universities there are a lot of fraternities, in which are a unity of a group of students who help each other with education and at the same time become a sort of “brotherhood/sisterhood” to help each other out with anything needed. These fraternities are also well-known for their competitions and patriotism amongst the universities other fraternities. Many of them would attend at spirit and dance events. I have a few local friends that are in “frats” and there are definitely......

Words: 1053 - Pages: 5

Connecting Sociological Theory and Social Issues

...Connecting Sociological Theory and Social Issues Drug abuse is a topic of sociological significance because it is all around our daily lives whether we want it to be or not. Drug abuse today can influence or impact our family, community, and the economic and political life. Whether the drugs that are being abused are prescribed or recreational it can lead to bad consequences that the abuser may not have intentionally caused. It is also an important aspect to social life which sociologists can analyze with the three main theoretical perspectives of functionalism, conflict, and interactionism. Constructing a clock with its many different cogs and gears together is like the functionalist perspective of sociology because it “emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability” (Schaefer, 14) because without the various parts the clock or society cannot function. Drug abuse, through a functionalist view, may view it as dysfunctional. “A dysfunction refers to an element or process of a society that may actually disrupt the social system or reduce its stability” (Schaefer, 14). But, some people may view drug abuse as functional because this kind of abuse creates employment for police officers, rehabilitation clinics, some therapies, and medical doctors. So, without the drug abusers there would be a lot of uncreated employment. The functionalist view of drug abuse can be contrasted effectively by the conflict perspective of......

Words: 759 - Pages: 4

Die meist beobachteten | Hugh Dillon | New User Guide