Explanations and Treatment of Abnormal Behaviour Schizophrenia

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By robe00990442
Words 1782
Pages 8
Explanations and Treatment of Abnormal Behaviour
Schizophrenia is a type of abnormal psychology. Abnormality can be defined in three ways as a deviation from statistical norm, a deviation from the social norms and cultural relativism. However there are problems with defining abnormalities in terms of a system that relies on subjective judgment of a person’s behaviour. For example, someone experiencing hallucinations in Puerto Rico would be attributed to external forces (e.g. Spiritual visitations). However in the western world, the same hallucinations would be considered abnormal (Berry et al 1992).
Mental Disorders are classified today by using, The Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria 295.40 (Schizophrenia), and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision(IDC-10) are used to aid in the psychiatric diagnosis of the disorder.
The term ‘Schizophrenia’ was first used in 1911 by Swiss psychiatrist, Eugen Bleuler, and literally means ‘split mind’. He used the term to describe a general class of disorders that are characterised by a number of similar symptoms. These were: * Disorganised thought processes. * A split between intellect and emotion. * A split between intellect and external reality
Schizophrenia typically begins in early adulthood; between the ages of 15 and 25. Men tend to get develop schizophrenia somewhat earlier than women; whereas most males become ill between 16 and 25 years old, most females develop symptoms several years later, and the incidence in women is noticeably higher in women after age 30. The average age of onset is 18 in men and 25 in women. Schizophrenia onset is quite rare for people under 10 years of age, or over 40 years of age. (NICE 2012)
The main symptoms of the disorder according to Schneider…...

Similar Documents

Abnormal Behaviour

...Abnormal Behavior Abnormal psychology is a branch of psychology that studies behaviors, thoughts, and moods that are outside the bounds of what is widely considered as normal in a certain culture. The concept of abnormality is defined differently in different cultures as behaviors of a particular culture may be abnormal to another culture. In order to clearly understand what abnormal psychology is, it is very imperative to first understand what is defined as abnormal. The concept of abnormality is defined in relation to norms of a particular group or culture and hence anything (behavior, thought, or emotion) that is outside the norms of a particular group of people, gender, or age is considered as abnormal. Many people can follow under the normal curve where many human beings are clustered around the highest point of the curve called the average point. Any person who follows far from the average point in the normal curve is considered as abnormal. Different elements of abnormal psychology have brought about differences in definition, approaches, and treatment. These elements include; suffering, adaptation failure, incomprehensibility, vividness, violation of moral and ideal standards, unpredictability and loss of control, and incomprehensibility as well as irrationality. This study indicates how these elements bring about differences in definitions, approaches, and treatment of abnormality. Suffering is generally defined as the aspect of feeling pain or......

Words: 1916 - Pages: 8

Psych. Ib Abnormal

...Abnormal Psychology LAQs 1. Discuss validity and reliability of diagnosis. Paragraph 1 (Introduction): ● Classification system is said to be reliable when it is possible for 4 different clinicians, using the same system, to arrive at same diagnosis for same individual ● Examples: DSM-4, CCMD, ICD-10 ● Though diagnosis systems use more standardized assessment techniques and more specific diagnostic criteria than in the past, classification system is far from perfect ● Classification system said to be valid when it is able to classify a real pattern of symptoms, which can lead to an effective treatment ● However, problem with this is that the classification system is descriptive and doesn’t identify any specific causes for disorders Paragraph 2 (Study 1): Sane or Insane-Rosenhan (1973) Aim: test reliability of psychiatric diagnosis Procedure: field experiment Part 1 ● 8 healthy people (5 men, 3 women) gained admission to 12 different psychiatric hospitals ● Complained of hearing unclear, unfamiliar voices of same sex repeating words “thud” and “empty” ● Participants said they felt fine after admission to hospital (no more symptoms) Part 2 ● Rosenhan told staff at psychiatric hospital that pseudopatients will try to get admitted ● No pseudopatients were actually sent Results: Part 1 ● 7 diagnosed with schizophrenia ● Took average 19 days for discharge and were classified as “schizophrenia in...

Words: 2754 - Pages: 12

Discuss One or More Biological and Psychological Explanation of Schizophrenia (24)

...Discuss one or more biological and psychological explanation of schizophrenia (24) There appears to be a tendency for schizophrenia to run in families. This suggests that genes and biological factors play a role in the explanation of schizophrenia.. The closer the genetic relationship the more likely the people are to share the disorder. Evidence from family studies by Gottesman showed that when both parent are schizophrenic then there is a 46% chance of the child getting it, however, if only one parent had it, it dropped to 16% and dropped to a further 1% when the sibling of the child had schizophrenia. This suggests that a genetic factor is involved. Gottesman also looked at schizophrenics whose father had an identical twin. He found that there was a 17% of being schizophrenic when the father was but he also found that there was also 17% chance of developing the disease when the father’s twin had schizophrenia but the father didn’t. MZ twins share 100% of their genes; DZ twins share 50% of their genes. If genes are a factor we would expect more identical twins to share the disorder than non-identical. Rosenthal took a case study which had a set of female quadruplets. They all developed schizophrenia although the onset and symptoms were very different. This could have been a result of having a troubled upbringing. This suggests a strong heritable component. However, most first degree relatives and twins share the same or similar environments so it is difficult to......

Words: 1210 - Pages: 5


...Issue date: March 2009 Schizophrenia Core interventions in the treatment and management of schizophrenia in adults in primary and secondary care This is an update of NICE clinical guideline 1 NICE clinical guideline 82 Developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health NICE clinical guideline 82 Schizophrenia Ordering information You can download the following documents from www.nice.org.uk/CG82 • The NICE guideline (this document) – all the recommendations. • A quick reference guide – a summary of the recommendations for healthcare professionals. • ‘Understanding NICE guidance’ – a summary for patients and carers. • The full guideline – all the recommendations, details of how they were developed, and reviews of the evidence they were based on. For printed copies of the quick reference guide or ‘Understanding NICE guidance’, phone NICE publications on 0845 003 7783 or email publications@nice.org.uk and quote: • N1823 (quick reference guide) • N1824 (‘Understanding NICE guidance’). NICE clinical guidelines are recommendations about the treatment and care of people with specific diseases and conditions in the NHS in England and Wales. This guidance represents the view of NICE, which was arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. Healthcare professionals are expected to take it fully into account when exercising their clinical judgement. However, the guidance does not override the individual responsibility of healthcare......

Words: 8817 - Pages: 36


...the most hindering of these disorders is schizophrenia, which affects about one percent of the entire world population. Once the symptoms of schizophrenia occur, usually beginning in early adult hood, they continue for the entire lifetime of the patient and are almost totally disabling (Sawa & Snyder, 2002). Schizophrenia is a severe psychopathology which is categorized by positive and negative symptoms (Breedlove, Watson & Rosenzweig, 2010). This disorder distorts thoughts and perceptions. It is described as a loss of contact with reality and a disturbance in one's thoughts, perception, mood and movement. This mental disorder starts to become apparent during early adulthood and usually carries on for the rest of an individual's life (Bear, Connors & Paradiso, 2001). Symptoms of schizophrenia can be divided into two categories: Positive and negative. Positive symptoms "reflect the presence of abnormal thoughts and behaviours" (Bear, et al., 2010, p. 695). These symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and catatonic behaviours. Positive symptoms may be related to an excessive amount of dopamine function in the brain, such as the use of antipsychotic drugs which are highly effective in treating the positive symptoms of schizophrenia (Iversen, L., Iversen, S., Bloom & Roth, 2009). Negative symptoms on the other hand reflect the absence of responses that normally present themselves with schizophrenia (Bear, et al., 2010). These include......

Words: 1511 - Pages: 7


...Schizophrenia     Schizophrenia can be an extremely devastating disorder, affecting many aspects and self-perceived quality their life. The diagnosis unfortunately affects both the life of the victim as well as their friends and families. “People with schizophrenia can exhibit multiple communication impairments. One type of communication impairment is speech that is difficult to understand or disorganized, or formal thought disorder. Another type of communication impairment is decreased verbal productivity or poverty of speech” (Kerns 2007). As a devastating disorder, treatment, awareness, and having an active involvement to recovery for both the patient and their family is an important aspect of those affected with the disorder. Schizophrenia exists within Axis II, categorized as a personality disorder. Describing the first two dimensions, psychoticism consists of hallucinations and delusional experiences, expressed through disorganized speech and behavior, inappropriate affect, motor disturbances and disordered thought. The third dimension is the occurrence of negative symptoms which arise before the onset of illness, as displayed through social function. Treatments may involve programs combining drugs with psychotherapy, support counseling, behavior therapy, and family intervention to adjust communication patterns. In a research study supported by National Institute of Mental Health, researchers examined whether formal thought disorder, a form of communication......

Words: 812 - Pages: 4

Biological Explanation of Eating Behaviour

...LESSON FIVE & SIX – ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT EATING DISORDERS ------------------------------------------------- Specification link: You will be able to outline and evaluate: ------------------------------------------------- Biological, including neural and evolutionary, explanations of anorexia nervosa ------------------------------------------------- Psychology explanations of anorexia nervosa Outline and description of theories | Research evidence and commentary | IntroductionThe DSM-IV Rev identifies three categories of eating disorder: * Anorexia nervosa 1. AN -restricting type – refusal to eat 2. AN- binge eating/purging type – episodes of binge eating followed by removal of food from the body by vomiting, laxatives, or enemas.Both of these are associated with significant weight loss and the other symptoms of AN. * Bulimia nervosa – episodes of binging followed by removal of food from the body by vomiting, laxatives, or enemas (no significant weight loss). * Eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS)The four major symptoms of anorexia nervosa are: * The body weight is 85% or less of normal weight for age and height * Distorted perception of body weight/shape, and/or denial that the weight loss is severe * Intense fear of becoming fat * Loss of three consecutive menstrual cycles in women (amenorrhoea)Anorexia nervosa (AN) and Bulimia nervosa (BN) have much in common, particularly a dissatisfaction with body weight and/or shape....

Words: 3915 - Pages: 16


...RIVERS SCHIZOPHRENIA Schizophrenia is a mental illness that usually strikes in late adolescence or early adulthood but can also strike at any time in life. The signs and symptoms are always different from one individual to the next. All those who have the disorder show one or more of the following symptoms delusions, hallucinations, bizarre behavior, and negative symptoms. People with schizophrenia suffer a decline in their level of functioning. Schizophrenia is a mental illness that can be overwhelming, complicating and can only get worse. Schizophrenia usually appears during a persons late teens and mid 30’s but its course differs with each patient. Some may go through three phases prodromal which means that symptoms are there but not yet obvious. What often happens during the prodromal stage they’ll start to withdrawal from others, have strange ideas, and some may not express much emotion? During the active phase they can have negative symptoms, start blurting emotions out but some patients may recover from schizophrenia. The phases may or may not last for days some even years, those who do recover from schizophrenia are those who have been ok, being able to function really good before getting the disorder or those who were diagnosed due to stress. When it comes to race and diagnosis of schizophrenia there is a biases as far as who has it. The prevalence rates of schizophrenia really depend on a range of factors, such as the availability of and response to......

Words: 1050 - Pages: 5

Compare and Contrast Psychological and Biological Explanations of Schizophrenia

...Compare and contrast psychological and biological explanations of schizophrenia. Jessica F Smith University Of Sussex Schizophrenia has been termed a heterogeneous group of disorders with varied etiologies (Walker, Kestler, Bollini, & Hochman, 2004) which includes biological, social, cognitive and psychodynamic perspectives. To progress knowledge of schizophrenia, this essay focuses on how the biological and psychological explanations are independent and interdependent and how they may differentiate from one another. This includes: how our biological predisposition, neuro transmitter dysfunction and genetic inheritance, affects how people with schizophrenia respond to social environments, the importance of socio-economic factors and their ability to shape psychotic symptoms, and how people with schizophrenia have faulty cognitions, which arguably develop from social influence and upbringing. The overruling theory, that is important in explanations of schizophrenia, is known as the Diathesis Stress Model (Davey, 2011), which identifies that psychotic symptoms arise from a combination of both biological predisposition and environmental stress. Servan-Schreiber, Bruno, Carter, & Cohen, (1998) alleviate that dopamine is an important neurotransmitter with a function in regulating movement and guiding attention. The dopamine hypothesis suggests that the dysfunction of movement and attention in those with schizophrenia may be a result of excess dopamine due to an......

Words: 2340 - Pages: 10


...DISCUSSION OF HOW PEOPLE LIVING WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA CAN LIVE WITH THE CONDITION. PYC4802,PSYCHOPATHOLOGY.UNIQUE NUMBER 668049.STUDENT NO.48415952 Page 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------PAGE 1. Schizophrenia--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 2. Symptoms ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 2.1. Positive symptoms----------------------------------------------------------------------4 Hallucinations---------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 Delusions --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 Disorganized Thinking (Speech)----------------------------------------------------------5 Disorganized or Catatonic Behavior-----------------------------------------------------5 2.2. Negative symptoms--------------------------------------------------------------------5 Alogia-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 Affective flattening--------------------------------------------------------------------------5 Avolition----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 3. Types of schizophrenia--------------------------------------------------------------------------6 Paranoid......

Words: 3827 - Pages: 16


...2015 Critically discuss how people who have been diagnosed with schizophrenia are able to live positively with their disorder Student No: 47851449 Due date: June 17th 2015 Assignment 3 PYC4802 Psychopathology Fatima-H TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction.............................................................................................. 3 2. Definition of Schizophrenia...................................................................... 3 3. Diagnostic criteria of Schizophrenia......................................................... 4 4. Hallmark features of Schizophrenia......................................................... 5 5. Living positively with Schizophrenia......................................................... 7 5.1 Pharmacological Intervention................................................................. 8 5.2 Cognitive- Behavioural Therapy............................................................. 9 5.3 Psychosocial treatments........................................................................ 9 5.4 Positive psychological interventions...................................................... 10 5.5 Community-based rehabilitation for people with schizophrenia............. 11 5.6 Occupational Therapy............................................................................ 12 5.7 Living a healthy lifestyle.............................................................

Words: 4675 - Pages: 19

Describe and Evaluate 2 Biological Treatments for Schizophrenia

...The dopamine hypothesis states that an excess of/ sensitivity to dopamine leads to positive symptoms of schizophrenia. There are two antipsychotics used to decrease the effect of dopamine: Typical antipsychotics (1st generation drugs) and Atypical antipsychotics (2nd generation drugs).1st generation drugs reduce the effect of dopamine and therefore mainly reduce positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Typical antipsychotics, such as chlorpromazine, are dopamine antagonists and work by binding to dopamine receptors, in particular D2, in the synapses thus preventing dopamine itself from binding to receptors and therefore blocking their action. As a result positive symptoms of schizophrenia are reduced. 2nd generation drugs are a newer generation of antipsychotics, such as clozapine, and work by attaching to specific D2 dopamine receptors only and serotonin. They only temporarily occupy the D2 dopamine receptors and then rapidly dissociate to allow normal dopamine transmission. The use of drugs for treating SOS is not a long term cure and if the drugs are stopped the symptoms of schizophrenia may come back. This can lead to the ‘revolving door syndrome’ where a SOS would leave the institution because their condition has improved and as a result they stop taking the drugs. But then their symptoms would return and the SOS would have to be re-admitted to the institution often with worsened symptoms. This can result in the SOS needing to take a higher dose of drugs as if they......

Words: 907 - Pages: 4

Biological Explanations of Schizophrenia (24 Marks)

...Discuss biological explanations of schizophrenia AO1- (4 marks) Biological explanations of schizophrenia argue that the causes of schizophrenia and physiological rather than psychological. Evidence to support this comes from research into genetics, as well as biochemical factors. Firstly, genetic research has considered rates of schizophrenia found in biological relatives, monozygotic twins (MZ) and dizygotic twins (DZ). This research includes family studies. Schizophrenia is more common among biological relatives with schizophrenia and the closer then family member e.g. a sister the greater the risk of developing schizophrenia. They found children with 2 schizophrenic parents have a concordance rate of 46% compared with children who have one schizophrenic parent, concordance rate is 13%. In addition, MZ twins have a higher concordance rate at 40.4% than DZ twins at 7.4% in terms of developing schizophrenia. Researchers have also tried to find twins separated at birth and at least one twin was diagnosed with schizophrenia. Gottesman and Shields found 58% of twins were concordant for schizophrenia. In contrast, more recent studies, using blind studies, have reported lower concordance rates for MZ twins. However, it is still arguing findings support the genetic inheritance of schizophrenia. Similarly, adopted children are looked at to test whether schizophrenia is an environmental influence or genetically inherited. They have been looking at children who were adopted and......

Words: 1141 - Pages: 5


...Mental illness has been acknowledged for thousands of years. Those who were different, or acted different from what main stream society felt was the norm; those who committed adultery, those pregnant out of wedlock, or even those who were mentally different, were all singled out, treated the same, and considered abnormal. Abnormal behavior cannot simply be defined into a single definition, with no definite line that can be crossed which separates whether someone on one side of the line has abnormal tendencies, with someone on the other side which is considered normal behavior. This paper focuses on Schizophrenia, a major mental illness, and will discuss and evaluate the symptoms, causes, and treatments which are currently being used. The human mind can be fragile, and there are many diseases and disorders that can affect it. Some may be serious while others are minor and barely recognizable. Schizophrenia is just one of those diseases which can encompass being both minor and serious. The definition for a mental illness is an illness that affects a person's mind, thoughts, emotions, personality, or behavior. Just like a physical illness, mental illness also shows symptoms that make it possible for the mental disorder or illness to be identified. Some of the recognizable symptoms can be extreme moods, sadness, anxiety, and inability to think clearly, or remember well. It does not mean, that just because a person may experience some of these symptoms, that she or he is......

Words: 3704 - Pages: 15

Biological Explanations for Schizophrenia

...Outline and evaluate 2 biological explanations for schizophrenia.’ 24 Marks One biological explanations for schizophrenia is genetic factors, which can be studied through twin studies. If the concordance rate is 100% in MZ twins it means that the characteristic is genetically determined because monozygotic twins share the same genes and environment. This was shown by Gottesman and Shields, who reviewed the results of 5 twin studies looking for concordance rates for schizophrenia. These studies looked at 210 MZ twins and 319 DZ twins. It was found that in MZ twins there was a concordance rate of 35-58% compared with dizygotic (DZ) twin rates that ranged from 9-26%. They also found a concordance rate in MZ twins of 75-91% when the sample was restricted to the most severe form of schizophrenia. This can show that there is a link with genetics and schizophrenia. However, the twin studies have all assumed that the shared environmental effects for MZ and DZ twins are equal which may be incorrect. In addition twins are not representative of the wider population. This is because it is a very small sample and there are very few MZ twins in the population and only 1% are Schizophrenic. This shows the sample may not be generalizable to the public. In addition family studies support the idea that there is a genetic influence in schizophrenia. For example, if a parents is schizophrenic and a child becomes schizophrenic it would be likely that genetic factors responsible......

Words: 1021 - Pages: 5

The National | • Empire 2015 5.9 | Peeping Life TV: Season 1?? English Subbed