Free Essay

Franklin

In: Historical Events

Submitted By kendra08
Words 2583
Pages 11
Chapter 13 Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) & Reflex Activity
Objectives
1. Define peripheral nervous system and list its components. 2. Define sensation and perception 3. Classify general sensory receptors by structure, stimulus detected, and body location. 4. Distinguish between receptor and generator potentials and sensory adaptation. 5. Compare and contrast the three main levels of neural integration. 6. Describe the four properties of a stimulus. 7. Distinguish between tonic and phasic receptors and the idea of adaptation. 8. Discuss pain (types, neurotransmitters, fast vs. slow pain, phantom & referred pain). 9. Define ganglion and indicate the general body location of ganglia. 10. Describe the general structure of a nerve. 11. Name the 12 pairs of cranial nerves; indicate the body region and structures innervated by each. 12. Describe the formation of a spinal nerve and the general distribution of its rami. 13. Define plexus. Name the major plexuses and describe the distribution and function of the peripheral nerves arising from each plexus. 14. Outline the three levels of the motor hierarchy. 16. Name the components of a reflex arc and distinguish between visceral and somatic reflexes.
Chapter 12 (CNS) 19. Describe the gross and microscopic structure of the spinal cord. 20. List the major spinal cord tracts, and classify each as a motor or sensory tract.

I Overview (Fig. 13.1) A. General properties of sensory systems 1. They begin with a stimulus, internal or external, that acts on a sensory receptor. 2. The receptor is a biological transducer that converts the stimulus into electrical graded potentials. 3. If the graded potentials are above threshold, action potentials pass from the receptor along an afferent sensory neuron to the CNS. 4. A sensation is the conscious or subconscious awareness of changes in the external or internal environment. Perception is the conscious awareness and interpretation of sensations and is primarily a function of the cerebral cortex. 5. At each synapse along the way, the nervous system can modulate and shape the information.

[pic]

II Part 1: Sensory Receptors & Sensation A. Sensory receptors 1. Sensory receptors vary widely in complexity, ranging from branched endings of a single sensory neuron to multicellular sense organs such as the ear (16,000 sensory receptors) or eye (126 million sensory receptors) (Lions and tigers and bears, oh my!) 2. Classification by stimulus type a. Mechanoreceptors (pressure, vibration, gravity, acceleration, sound, stretch) b. Thermoreceptors (varying degrees of heat) c. Photoreceptors (photons of light) d. Chemoreceptors (oxygen, pH, various organic molecules such as glucose) e. Nociceptors (NO-sih-SEP-turs) (tissue damage interpreted as pain) 3. Classification by location a. Exteroceptors b. Interoceptors (visceral pain, nausea, pressure) c. Proprioceptors (position/movements of body) 4. Classification by structural complexity a. Somatosensory receptors (Table 13.1) * A neuron with free or "naked" nerve endings (pain, temperature) * Encapsulated dendritic endings (wrapped in C.T.; mechanoreceptors for touch, pressure) b. Sense organs with highly specialized receptor cells (complex; nerve endings combined with epithelial, connective or muscular tissues that enhance or moderate the response to a stimulus) * The receptors for smell are neurons, but other senses use non-neural receptor cells that synapse onto sensory neurons. B. Sensory pathways carry information to the CNS (general organization of somatosensory system) 1. Sensory stimuli trigger action potentials in first-order (primary) sensory neurons. 2. In the spinal cord, most first-order sensory neurons synapse onto interneurons called second-order (secondary) sensory neurons. 3. Second-order sensory neurons project to other regions of the spinal cord or brain, where they synapse onto third-order (tertiary) sensory neurons. 4. Most sensory information project to the thalamus, which acts as a relay and processing station (note: only olfactory information is not routed through the thalamus). 5. Three main levels of neural integration (Fig. 13.2) a. Processing at the receptor level * Specificity of the receptor: each receptor type has an adequate stimulus, a particular form of energy to which it is most responsive. They also have a minimum stimulus required to activate them or threshold. * The receptor of each first-order neuron picks up information from a single area known as the receptive field of the receptor. In some regions of the skin, such as the arms and legs, many first-order sensory neurons converge on a single second-order sensory neuron, so the secondary receptive area is large. The most sensitive areas of the skin have smaller receptive fields, with perhaps a 1:1 relationship between first- order and second-order neurons (Two-point discrimination test; 2 mm to 40 mm) * Stimulus energy must be converted into a graded potential called a generator potential or receptor potential (see blow) in a process called transduction (conversion of stimulus energy into information that can be processed by the nervous system. What is the "language" of the nervous system, dear ones? The stimulus opens ion channels in the receptor membrane, either directly (ionotropic) or indirectly (metabotropic). In most cases, channel opening results in a net influx of Na+ into the receptor, depolarizing the membrane. In a few cases, the response to the stimulus is hyperpolarization when K+ leaves the cell. * The change in membrane potential is called the generator potential (somatic sense receptors) or receptor potential (special senses) * Four properties of a stimulus: * Sensory modality: which sensory neurons are activated. Each receptor type is most sensitive to a particular type of stimulus (e.g., touch, temperature, pain). The brain then associates a signal coming from a specific group of receptors with a specific modality. This 1:1 association of a receptor to a sensation is called labeled line coding. Stimulation of a cold receptor will always be perceived as cold, whether the actual stimulation was cold or whether an artificial depolarization of the receptor was the source of the stimulus. * Location of the stimulus: remember the somatosensory homunculus in the primary somatosensory cortex? And what about lateral inhibition (a process in which sensory neurons close to a stimulus are inhibited to intensify the perception of the stimulus) * Intensity and duration of the stimulus: number of receptors (population coding) and frequency of action potentials (frequency coding) * Tonic receptors * Phasic receptors: rapidly adapting (pressure, touch, smell) & slowly adapting (pain, body position, chemical composition of blood) b. Processing at the circuit level (ascending pathways): First-order (primary) sensory neurons bring information from somatic receptors to second-order (secondary) sensory neurons in the CNS. The location of the synapses between first-order and second-order neurons varies according to the type of receptor. Those neurons associated with receptors for nociception, temperature, and coarse touch synapse onto their secondary neurons shortly after entering the spinal cord. In contrast, most fine touch and proprioceptive neurons have very long axons that project up the spinal cord all the way to the medulla. All second-order neurons cross the midline of the body, so that sensations from the left side of the body are processed in the right hemisphere of the brain and vice versa. c. Processing at the perceptual level (cerebral cortex) * Perceptual detection: detection of a stimulus * Magnitude estimation: how intense * Spatial discrimination: site or pattern of stimulation * Feature abstraction: complex aspects of a sensation * Quality discrimination: ability to distinguish aspects a sensation * Pattern recognition: familiar pattern

[pic] C. Perception of pain 1. Nociceptors (pain receptors) are especially common in the superficial portions of the skin, in join capsules, in the periostea of bones, and around the walls of blood vessels. Other deep tissues and most visceral organs have few nociceptors. 2. Pain receptors are free nerve endings with large receptive fields. 3. Pain receptors may be sensitive to: * extremes of temperature * mechanical damage * dissolved chemicals, such as chemicals released by injured tissues (histamine, K+, ATP, prostaglandins, & bradykinin, the universal pain stimulus) 4. Two types of axons-type A and type C fibers-carry painful sensations: * Myelinated Type A fibers carry sensations of fast pain or prickling pain * Type C fibers carry sensations of slow pain or burning and aching pain 5. Pain receptors are tonic receptors (no significant peripheral adaptation) 6. Glutamate and/or substance P are the pain neurotransmitters. 7. The level of pain felt can be reduced by the release of the neuromodulators endorphins & enkephalins found in the limbic system, hypothalamus & reticular formation (periaqueductal gray matter of midbrain). These neuromodulators bind to the presynaptic membrane and prevent the release of substance P. 8. The lateral spinothalamic tract carries sensations of pain. Any abnormality along the pathway can result in inappropriate sensations or inaccurate localization of the source. * Phantom limb pain: caused by activity in the sensory neurons or interneurons along the spinothalamic pathway (labeled line) * Referred pain: pain felt in an uninjured part of the body when the pain actually originates at another location. For example, strong visceral pain sensations arriving at a segment of the spinal cord can stimulate interneurons that are part of the spinothalamic pathway. Activity in these interneurons leads to stimulation of the primary somatosensory cortex, so the individual feels pain in a specific part of the body surface.

III Part 2: Transmission Lines: Nerves & Their Structure & Repair A. Nerves & Associated Ganglia 1. Structure & classification [Note: Remember that a nerve fiber is the axon of a single neuron and a nerve is a collection of nerve fibers (a few to more than a million)] a. Structure (Fig. 13.3) * Endoneurium, perineurium & epineurium

[pic] b. Classification * Sensory (afferent) * Motor (efferent) * Mixed (most common) 2. Regeneration of nerve fibers (Fig. 13.4) a. In the PNS, Schwann cells play a part in repairing damaged nerves. In a process known as Wallerian degeneration the axon distal to the injury site degenerates and macrophages migrate into the area and clean up the debris. The Schwann cells proliferate and form a solid cellular cord (regeneration tube) that follows the path of the original axon. As the neuron recovers, its axon grows into the site of injury, and Schwann cells wrap around the axon. b. Limited regeneration occurs in the CNS due to the presence of assorted glial cells. B. Cranial Nerves (Fig. 13.5 & Table 13.2) 1. Mnemonics: Old Opie occasionally tries trigonometry and feels very gloomy, vague, and hypoactive Oh Oh Oh, To Touch And Feel Very Green Vegetables, Ah Heaven! Oh, Once One Takes The Anatomy Final, Very Good Vacations Are Heavenly!

Chapter 12 The Central Nervous System
V The Spinal Cord A. Gross anatomy & protection (Fig. 12.29) 1. General features a. Cervical & lumbar enlargements b. Conus medullaris c. Cauda equina d. Filum terminale e. Spinal nerves (roots) (31) [pic]

f. Anterior median fissure & posterior median sulcus (Fig. 12.31) g. Gray matter * Gray commissure * Anterior, lateral & posterior horns h. White matter * Anterior, lateral & posterior funiculus (columns) 2. Spinal meninges (Fig. 12.31) a. Dural mater: dense C.T. * Epidural space: between dura mater and walls of vertebral canal; contains areolar tissue blood vessels and adipose tissue (epidural block) b. Arachnoid ("spider") mater * Subarachnoid space: filled with CSF, which acts as a shock absorber and a diffusion medium for dissolved gases, nutrients, chemical messengers and waste products * Lumbar tap (Fig. 12.30) c. Pia mater * Denticulate ligaments: extend from the pia through the arachnoid to the dura (prevent lateral movement) 3. Meningitis: inflammation of the meninges due to bacterial or viral infection; can disrupt the normal circulation of CSF

[pic]
[pic]
B. Cross-sectional anatomy 1. Organization of gray matter (Fig. 12.32) a. Sensory & motor nuclei b. Dorsal or posterior horns * Somatic & visceral sensory nuclei c. Ventral or anterior horns * Somatic motor nuclei d. Lateral horns (thoracic & lumbar) * Visceral motor nuclei [pic] 2. Organization of white matter (Fig. 12.33) a. White columns (funiculi): posterior, lateral & anterior * Tracts or fasciculi: bundle of axons relaying sensory or motor info * Ascending (sensory) & descending (motor)

[pic] C. Ascending tracts 1. Neuronal composition (Fig. 12.34) a. First-order neurons (cell bodies in dorsal root ganglia) b. Second-order neurons (cell bodies in dorsal horn) c. Third-order neurons (cell bodies in thalamus) 2. Somatic sensory pathways a. Spinothalamic pathway * Lateral spinothalamic tract: pain and temperature sensations b. Posterior column pathway c. Spinocerebellar pathway: proprioceptive input from Golgi tendon organs, muscle spindles, and joint capsules 3. Somatic motor pathways a. Corticospinal pathway (pyramidal): voluntary control of skeletal muscles; begins at the pyramidal cells of the primary motor cortex (upper motor neurons), descend along the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata (pyramids) with about 85% of the axons crossing over (decussate) to enter the lateral corticospinal tract b. Medial pathway c. Lateral pathway

[pic][pic]

C. Spinal Nerves (Back to chapter 13)

[pic]

1. General features (Fig. 13.7) a. Proximal branches * Dorsal root * Dorsal root ganglion * Ventral root b. Distal branches * Dorsal ramus (dorsal muscles & joints) * Ventral ramus (ventral & lateral skin & muscles of trunk & limbs) * Meningeal branch (meninges, vertebrae)
[pic]
2. Innervation of specific body regions a. Nerve plexuses (Fig. 13.6) * Ventral rami (except thoracic) b. Back (Fig. 13.7) c. Anterolateral thorax & abdominal wall (Fig. 13.7) * Intercostal nerves d. Cervical plexus & neck (Fig. 13.8 & Table 13.3): ventral rami of spinal nerves C1-C5; innervate the muscles of the neck & extend into the thoracic cavity * Phrenic nerve: the major nerve of the cervical plexus; provides nerve supply to diaphragm, a key respiratory muscle. Hiccups are often caused by irritation of the phrenic nerve *Shingles: caused by herpes virus that also causes chickenpox. This virus attacks neurons within the dorsal root of spinal nerves and sensory ganglia of cranial nerves. e. Brachial plexus of pectoral girdle & upper limb (Table 13.4 & Fig. 13.9) * Axillary nerve * Musculocutaneous nerve * Median nerve * Ulnar nerve * Radial nerve * "Saturday night paralysis" f. Lumbosacral plexus of lower limb * Lumbar plexus (Table 13.5 & Fig. 13.10) * Femoral & obturator nerves * Sacral plexus (Table 13.6 & Fig. 13.11) * Sciatic nerve g. Innervation of skin: Dermatomes (derma = skin + tom = segment) (Fig. 13.12) h. Innervation of joints
[pic]
IV Part 3: Motor Endings & Motor Activity A. Peripheral Motor Endings 1. Innervation of skeletal muscle a. Neuromuscular junctions (Fig. 9.7) b. Innervation of visceral muscle & glands (Fig. 9.25) B. Overview of Motor Integration: From Intention to Effect 1. Levels of motor control (Fig. 13.13) a. The segmental level: neural circuits at various segments of spinal cord; control locomotion and specific, oft-repeated motor activity * Central pattern generators (CPGs): a network of neurons that can produce a repetitive and properly sequenced pattern of motor signals entirely by virtue of the connections that exist among the neurons in it, and without the necessity for external timing cues. CPGs are important in the generation of most, if not all, rhythmic behaviors, such as the running after a ball. b. The projection level (upper motor neurons of motor cortex & brain stem) c. The precommand level (cerebellum & basal nuclei) * Regulate motor activity * Precisely start and stop movements * Coordinate movements with posture * Block unwanted movements * Monitors muscle tone

[pic]

V Part 4: Reflex Activity A. The Reflex Arc: the "wiring" of a single reflex (rapid, automatic responses to specific stimuli) 1. Components of a reflex arc (Fig. 13.14) a. Arrival of a stimulus and activation of a receptor b. Activation of a sensory receptor c. Information processing d. Activation of a motor neuron e. Response of peripheral effector

[pic]

B. Classification of reflexes 1. Innnate (e.g., removal of hand from hot plate, blinking) vs. acquired (e.g., braking a car) 2. Somatic vs. visceral 3. Monosynaptic vs. polysynaptic 4. Spinal vs. cranial reflexes B. Spinal Reflexes 1. Stretch reflex (e.g., patellar reflex): muscle spindles…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Ben Franklin

...Benjamin Franklin: New World Physicist       Benjamin Franklin was born on January 17, 1706 in Boston Massachusetts. He was one of seventeen other brothers and sisters. His father, Josiah Franklin, who emigrated from Oxfordshire, England, worked as a soap boiler and tallow chandler. Benjamin’s mother, Abiah Folger, was from Nantucket but her family derived from England as well.  Benjamin Franklin’s entire life, which lasted almost the entire eighteenth century, was based upon order and systematic discipline in addition to his dependence on wisdom and intelligence. Franklin was sincere, honest, and was apt to self-examination. He acquired long lasting friends from persons of every age. Franklin found unquestionable delight in living.      Benjamin Franklin started attending school at the age of 8 and was at the head of his class by the end of his first year. After only attending his first school for one year he moved on to math and arithmetic school. He failed out of that school by the time he was 10. He then quit school completely in order to assist his father in the soap and candle making business. At age 12 he moved on to be an apprentice to his older brother James, who was a printer.  Soon Franklin had ambitions to write and by age 16 he had written a series of letters by an imaginary author. The letters were printed in the New England Courant, which was published by his brother. Still pursuing his writing career, he ran away to Philadelphia and continued......

Words: 787 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Benjamin Franklin

...Josh Maynor Bradford vs Franklin American Literature, in its early period, had a great deal in common with the settlers of America in its beginnings. Authors and settlers alike both were teaming with new ideas and thoughts of change to this new world. Starting with the earliest authors, most wrote on the spiritual and divine way of life, but as the years passed more and more writers seemed to direct their focus toward logic and reason. William Bradford was a very influential writer in during the time of Early American Literature and maybe even perceived as the greatest in the early period despite his differences of style when compared to others writers such as Ben Franklin. Among the many successful writers of this period, these two historical figures played a major role in early American literature. Although both Franklin and Bradstreet were closely related when speaking of time periods, they were different when it came to views on certain topics, one of which including knowledge. William Bradford, who was a leader of early English settlers, was born in 1590. He, along with many others, wanted to leave the English church and be able to get to the new world where freedom of religion reigned. Bradford and countless others were now known as the Puritans and also known as “Separitists” for leaving “The Church”, as to say it was viewed to be the one and only right church to be a part of. These so called “Separitists”, didn’t like the views of the Church of England and...

Words: 1236 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Benjamin Franklin

...Benjamin Franklin was a remarkably talented man. He started his life as a printers apprentice, but went much farther then there. He developed things that were far more advanced than the time. Benjamin Franklin's stove for example, for cold winter nights, and bifocal lenses for reading. Franklin tracked storms to help understand the horrible weather endured by the colonies. But gis study of electricity made him mist famous and he was known world wide as the founder of the lightning rod. Not only was Benjamin Franklin helpful in developing ideas for better living, he was also a strong force in developing the new nation of America. Benjamin Franklins political views showed him to be a man who loved freedom and independence. His views towards England gradually changed from like to dislike until he finally became a revolutionist at the age of seventy. But more than just his political views helped the formation of the United States government and independance. His common sense, knowledge, and ability to negotiate all played a major part in the forming of a new country. Benjamin Franklin's ability to compromise often helped prevent large disputes which could have stalled the new government from forming. Benjamin Franklin was a major participant in the colonies strive for independence. He had a house in London and was very influential in England. However, his love of liberty and his wish to help the well being of Pennsylvania pushed him toward independence for the colonies. Also...

Words: 883 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Benjamin Franklin

...en Franklin: Early Life In his many careers as a printer, moralist, essayist, civic leader, scientist, inventor, statesman, diplomat, and philosopher, for later generations of Americans he became both a spokesman and a model for the national character. He was born in Boston, Massachusetts on Jan. 17, 1706, into a religious Puritan household. His father, Josiah, was a candlemaker and a skillful mechanic. His mother, Abiah Ben’s parents raised thirteen children--the survivors of Josiah’s seventeen children by two wives (#1). Printer & Writer Franklin left school at ten years old when he was pressed into his father's trade. At twelve Ben was apprenticed to his half brother James, a printer of The New England Courant. He generally absorbed the values and philosophy of the English Enlightenment. At the age of 16, Franklin wrote some pieces for the Courant signed "Silence Dogood," in which he parodied the Boston authorities and society (#3). At one point James Franklin was imprisoned for his liberal statements, and Benjamin carried on the paper himself. Having thus learned to resist oppression, Benjamin refused to suffer his brother's own domineering qualities and in 1723 ran away to Philadelphia (#1). Soon Franklin found a job as a printer. After a year he went to England, where he became a master printer, sowed some wild oats, amazed the locals with his swimming feats, and lived among inspiring writers of London. By 1726 Franklin was tiring of London (#1). He......

Words: 390 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Benjamin Franklin

...Franklin project: Paragraphs Paragraph 1: Franklin Reflection Benjamin Franklin’s improvement plan for himself was very substantial for one to commit to. Having thirteen personality traits to flip around at one time is too much for a human to conquer. He must have been a serious go getter. He made a chart and even kept a journal to record his progress. Personally I feel like doing this would be almost impossible. He writes “I wanted to make all these virtues into personal habits, so I tried to master them one at a time”. It’s great to work hard for something, but it’s hard enough changing one thing but changing thirteen things would be non- accomplishable. I remember I tried to change just a few things about me. Just doing that was hard, and it took awhile and sometimes I still mess up. But having ten more things would be too much. However, he definitely knew it would be a challenge according to his quote, “ Like a man with a large garden to weed, I knew I could not get rid of all my faults at once”. At least he is somewhat realistic. Still I believe if he took to the list with tremendous work ethic, he would still most likely not perfect himself. Perfection takes a lifetime. Paragraph 2: My Plan My improvement plan consists of simply not cursing, and replacing those words with more sensible words. Cursing is unprofessional and makes me sound uneducated. I knew it needed to stop, so like Benjamin Franklin I set myself up with a self......

Words: 619 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Benjamin Franklin

...Benjamin Franklin was an American printer, diplomat, scientist and philosopher who made many contributions to the American Revolution and the newly formed Federal Government that followed. Even though some people were not always happy with some of his ideas. Today, he is recognized as one of America’s greatest inventors. Benjamin Franklin was a true American because of his dedication to starting, sustaining, and stabilizing America as a country. One of Franklin’s most contributive works to America besides his diplomacy was the Declaration of Independence. Not only did Franklin help write this document, but he was also the oldest person to sign it. Franklin published an annual book called Poor Richard’s Almanac. In this book Franklin included both important and useless information. Franklin predicted temperatures, told tales, included some of his favorite quotes, and had many fun facts published in this book. This is one of Franklin’s most famous quotes; “Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.” This saying shows Franklin’s intelligence on time management. Here Franklin claims to be a precise, healthy, and wise person. Benjamin Franklin’s leadership did not only influence the people of his time, but this great quality still influences the people of today. Many people today think of Franklin as a proud pillar of our national heritage. Most of Franklin’s education was self-taught through his hard work and dedication to learning. This education...

Words: 510 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Benjamin Franklin

...strong and with this strength deism was born. Although not everyone accepted these new ideas, many did. Benjamin Franklin was definitely a product of this new age. Benjamin Franklin at the age of sixteen accepted deism as his religion. Franklin believed in the perfectibility of man. By altering his lifestyle he removed morals from religion in believing one should do good because it is useful in this world, not the next. Without having to consider original sin from Adam and Eve, which would have made it impossible to achieve perfection. Unlike Puritans who believed they had to reach moral perfection to please God. Franklins deism allowed him to strive for this perfection. His strategy for accomplishing his goal was by following his thirteen virtues. He made a little brown book so he could recorded the faults he had that day. In his Autobiography Franklin hints at his secularization of virtue, “vicious actions are no harmful because they are forbidden, but forbidden because they are hurtful”(818). Franklin did not feel that he truly reached this perfection, mainly because, “inclination was sometimes too strong for reason”(913). Later stating that, “I was by the endeavor a better and happier Man than I otherwise should have been, if I had not attempted it”(917). As we look at Franklin’s thirteen virtues all of them deal with the betterment of oneself and mankind. Franklin has truly defined his secularization of virtues....

Words: 304 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Benjamin Franklin

...Blake Howard EN 105 Nancy McGee Week 2 Essay 10/28/2014 Benjamin Franklin Arriving at Perfection Can anyone be perfect? How do we go about achieving perfection? Well Benjamin Franklin thought he could live his life to perfection and achieve this in everyday tasks. People second-guess themselves or look back and wish they would have done whatever they had done different. Benjamin Franklin was on a mission to show everyone he could be perfect but also show to everyone he came across. Even though his ways of being perfect were not the same as everyone’s standards, Benjamin Franklin still tried to show that he was perfect in everyway possible. There is something in all of our lives that we wish we were better at. There are things we may try to do to make those things better: study more, put in extra hours at the job, see a counselor, or practice harder. In Benjamin Franklin's essay "Arriving at Perfection" he sets out to devise a plan of self-examination, resulting in self-correction. “Arriving at Perfection” Benjamin Franklin explains how he is perfect and how he is going to show everyone to stride to be perfect. He said, “It was about the time I conceived the bold project of arriving at moral perfection”. This message shows the standard of his thoughts and motives of Benjamin Franklin. Benjamin Franklin, along with being a worthy human being, was an extremely ingenious person as well. Franklin was a very clever man, intellectual and witty, and he did not let......

Words: 884 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ben Franklin

...Rebecca Williams 10/22/08 Benjamin Franklin’s Autobiography: a guide to wealth and success in colonial America By writing his Autobiography, Benjamin Franklin hoped to leave behind “the conducting means I made use of, which, with the blessing of God, so well succeeded, my Posterity may like to know, as they may find them suitable to their own situations, and therefore fit to be imitated” (pg. 1). Taking from his writing the principles he lived by and his personal attributes that benefitted him most, the book can be interpreted as a guide to success in colonial America. These principles and attributes are mainly a strong work ethic and determination, self-discipline, and desire for self-improvement. It is clear from the first lines of the Autobiography that Franklin displayed a strong work ethic throughout his entire. There are several instances throughout his Autobiography that indicate that he was never fully satisfied with settling for second best, but rather always strove to achieve the best. This characteristic was shown early on in life, when, at the age of 17, Franklin left his home town of Boston. Ending up in Philadelphia, “without the least recommendations or knowledge of any person in the place, and with very little money in my pocket” (pg.17), he relied solely on his determination and ability to work hard to make his way. Later in his Autobiography there is another mention of this characteristic. “I had on the whole abundant reason to be satisfied with......

Words: 1310 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Mount Franklin

...Mount Franklin has the core product where it has produced for people who want to drink convenience of fresh, cold water where they can bring it out anytime, anywhere they want. The launched of this product doesn’t mean to replace tap water in Australia. People choose to drink bottled water as an alternative to other beverages in the shop fridge, not as an alternative to tap water ( Mount Franklin | Think Positive | Environment | FAQ). The packaging for the Mount Franklin bottled water dominant with blue lids and bottle which look fresh. In the last October, they turning out the pink lids to celebrate Breast Cancer Awareness Month in support of the McGrath Foundation (Ccamatil,2010). Mount Franklin is so concern about the product for customers to choose, ranging from 350mL kids pack to 2 litre pack that will suit any occasion. Handy multi packs also available for customers that would like to stock up. Customers can pick appropriately from this varieties pack. However , the actual product needs to be outstanding considering the abundance and simplicity of the core product. When talking about the bottle water price it is subjective to say whether the price for the Mount Franklin is high or not. They selling it with higher price compare to others bottled water. That is the way they want to communicate their product is a high-quality as Mount Franklin become a number one brand bottled water in Australia. At this time the retail price for the one litre bottle of water was......

Words: 531 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Benjamin Franklin

...family members had substantial influence on molding young Benjamin Franklin. As Franklin’s life unfolded, he exceeded in many fields, including science, politics, journalism, and philosophy, while also becoming one of the Founding Fathers of the nation. Thus, it is evident the childhood of Benjamin Franklin had tremendous effects on his future. Benjamin Franklin was born on January 17, 1706 in Boston. Raised by his father, Josiah Franklin, and his mother, Abiah Folger Franklin, he was cast into a large family consisting of sixteen brothers and sisters. Josiah Franklin had seven children with another women before she passed away and he married Abiah. Due to the popularity of illnesses and diseases in the early American colonies both men and women were familiar with the idea of remarrying following their spouses death. Benjamin was the “youngest son and the youngest of all the children except two daughters.” A large family like the Franklin’s was not uncommon during this time as the average colonial family consisted of approximately nine members with a household typically including extended family as well. The relationship between Benjamin and his father was very important as he made later life decisions. Benjamin reverted to thoughts about his father throughout his whole autobiography. Although Josiah Franklin showed his support of Benjamin’s endeavors initially, this would not continue long. Franklin was so passionate about reading he often sat up in his room......

Words: 3813 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Rosalind Franklin

...Rosalind Franklin: Life through X-ray Crystallography and DNA Rosalind Franklin, the woman who contributed to scientist of the future understanding DNA structure. Scientist such as James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins benefited greatly from her findings. They received a Nobel Prize based off of her findings. Rosalind was also an X-ray crystallographer. X-ray crystallography is used for looking at atomic and molecular structures of crystal. This work contributed to her discovering the structure of DNA. Franklin was born in London, England, July 25, 1925. She attended an all girls school, which was one of the only schools that offered physics and chemistry. Clearly Franklin excelled at chemistry, as well as all of her other academics. In 1938, franklin attended Newnham College in Cambridge and graduated in 1941. In her graduate year she started a fellowship but in 1942 she started working at the British Coal Utilization Research Association. During this time she studies the porosity of coals, and compared it to the density of Helium. She found that through the pores of coal, substances were expelled in molecular sizes as the temperature increased. These findings helped with coals performance for fuel purposes. Franklin’s work with coals helped with the earning of her doctorate in physical chemistry that she earned in 1945 from Cambridge University. From 1947-1950 Franklin worked in Paris at Laboratoire Central des Services Chimiques de l’Etat. Here Franklin......

Words: 868 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ben Franklin

...Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin wasn’t only just an inventor, publisher, diplomat, or philosopher. Benjamin Franklin was an educator; he used life as his classroom and his acquaintances as his pupils. He used his life experiences as well as his mistakes as the curriculum. He then taught it to others. Throughout his life he helped others to better themselves. Whether it was with his training of young apprentices in the printing trade, or with his political advice to governors, Benjamin Franklin was always willing to help others to better their situations and to educate themselves. Franklin felt that everyone needed an education no matter what diverse background they were from. Franklin was vital in the formation of the first public school and first public library. He knew that education would be needed for success in life. He also partook in the formations of the first fire and police departments. Throughout Benjamin Franklin’s autobiography he tends to point out his short falls or mistakes, which he calls “erratas”. For instance, when he broke into Vern’s money or when he printed a pamphlet entitled "A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain" to impress Mr. Palmer. Neither party was pleased with his actions. In Franklin’s mind this reinforced his father’s belief he was too young to manage an important business and Mr. Palmer was neither impressed or in favor of the pamphlet; which he found to be detestable. Franklin learned from these mistakes and......

Words: 1020 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Benjamin Franklin

...Ben Franklin talks about his reasons for writing the Autobiography, saying that since you can't live your life over again, the next best thing is to recapture it by writing it down. He describes his early life in Boston, his love for reading, and his job training. Franklin apprentices as a printer to his brother James, but he hates working for him, and runs away to Philadelphia at age sixteen. In Philadelphia, Franklin begins working for a printer named Keimer. The governor, Sir William Keith, offers to set Franklin up on his own as a printer and sends him to England to get supplies. Once in England, though, Franklin finds out that Keith's a liar and a cheat – and he's stuck in London without money or a way to get back to America. Franklin works hard at Watts' printing shop, learns about his craft, and makes some important connections. After he saves up enough money, he returns to America with his friend Mr. Denham, who's offered him a job. Franklin works hard for Denham until his employer dies, and then he has to go back to Keimer. That doesn't last long, because Franklin quits. He decides to start his own business with another former Keimer employee, Hugh Meredith. Even though there's competition, they get a couple of lucky breaks, like printing the Pennsylvania Gazette. After Meredith bows out, Franklin gets some contracts to print paper money, and his rival Keimer retires. As the business really starts to take off, Franklin marries his old flame Deborah Read. He also......

Words: 1194 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Franklin

...Benjamin franklin Autobiography Benjamin Franklin was one of the founding fathers of the United States. Franklin was born January 17, 1706 and died April 17, 1790. Franklin was a leading writer, publisher, inventor, diplomat, scientist, and philosopher. Franklin is well-known for his experiments with electricity and lightning. Franklin was one of fifteen children in his family. Because he was from such a large family he was sent out to work at a very early age. He only had a few years of grammar school education when he started working in his father’s business. During his days off he educated himself through books. He worked as an apprentice in his brother’s print shop for several years until tension ended their relationship. He moved to Philadelphia to continue in the printing business. The book portrays a picture of life in Philadelphia, as well as literature, philosophy, and religion of America colonial and revolutionary periods. Franklin discussed his life-story as an example to illustrate the most important American qualities and values, like determination, self-sufficiency, perseverance, hard work, frugality, and reliance on a sound code of ethics are the ingredients of success. Benjamin was always teaching and leading by example. One way Franklin started his self-improvement was when he worked at his brother shop he begin to read and imitate the style of professional authors. This was a personal improvement for franklin.......

Words: 741 - Pages: 3

god friend me | Reunited Worlds (Cantonese) - 再次相遇的世界 (配音版)Reunited Worlds (Cantonese) | Solid Bow Pencil Knee-Length Bodycon Dress