Global Positioning Systems

In: Other Topics

Submitted By sbyrd101
Words 2831
Pages 12
Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
Historical development/context of the technology
In 1993, the final satellite was launched to complete the network of the 24 satellites that make up what is now known as the Global Positioning System. Because of these, a person can purchase a little device that has the capability to track and verify their exact location within a few hundred feet.
This fantastic technology only became available because the combination of scientific and engineering advances, especially the development of the atomic clock. The atomic clocks are precise within a billionth of a second. The development of the atomic clocks were important because the scientists were searching for answers about the nature of the universe. In the development of the atomic clocks, the physicists were unaware that one day their findings would lead to the global system that we use today.
For centuries the stars and the sun were the only way people could navigate or to find their way. Even after clocks were developed, it was possible for people to find their longitude but even with the most accurate instruments, exact locations were only good within a few miles. The Soviet Union launched their first satellite, Sputnik on October 4, 1957. This new technology did little more than orbit the earth every 98 minutes. It was not equipped with any scientific equipment although it did contain a single radio transmitter, which made it easy for the United States to track its path. The United States learned that they could listen to the changes in the radio frequency and figure out the location of the satellite. Even though the launch of Sputnik was pretty insignificant, it initiated the race to explore space. By monitoring the radio signals that were transmitted by Sputnik, the United States was able to develop technology that could track submarines. The navy experimented with different…...

Similar Documents

Differential Global Positioning System

...Running Head: DIFFERENTIAL GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM 1 Differential Global Positioning Systems Clay Guida Southern Illinois University DIFFERENTIAL GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM 2 Global Positioning Systems (GPS) have become one of the greatest innovations of the modern world. Simply put, your personal guide to anywhere in the world. It can accurately get a fix on your position to within 100 meters. This is where most people would say that their GPS gets them down to ten meters or less, and they would be right. But it is GPS in coordination with the Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) that gets them that accurate of a location. To understand this we must start from the beginning and go over GPS’s history. From there we will take a look at what causes some of the inaccuracies that GPS can. Then we can see how DGPS counters these and gives you the most accurate reading you can have. Differential Global Positioning System, GPS’s right hand man for accuracy. To understand how a DGPS helps a GPS we start at the beginning of it’s short history. Though made for use by the United States government, it was the Soviet Union that launched Sputnik in 1957 and gave us the idea. After the launch, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researches observed that they could pick up the radio signal that Sputnik was producing. They also realized that the sound of this transmission varied with......

Words: 2319 - Pages: 10

Global Segmentation Positioning Paper

...Segment criteria for a global market There are four generic situations for segmenting a global market: “similar segments and similar positioning; similar segments but different positioning; different segments but similar positioning; and different segments and different positioning” (Johansson, 2009). In a micro-segmentation analysis, global marketers can compare similarities of consumer preferences in various countries by forming clusters. This process is critical to globalization of one product in its original form. For a known brand of bathroom tissue that is entering a market where consumers do not have a quality product that represents equal competition, the key element to penetration is changing consumer perception. Knowing that there “are no best products, all that exists in the world of marketing are perceptions in the minds of the customer where the perception is reality and the rest is an illusion” (Ries, 1994), a marketer must understand how the customer thinks. Changing consumer perception requires a cluster analysis that groups consumers with similar economic and social indicators in order to design the appropriate message to target that group of people. Market reaction to new global brands Market reaction to global brands is often positive, especially if the brand has global recognition but has not entered the market yet. A good way to gauge in on how consumers will react to a new product hitting the market is through focus groups, sampling, and......

Words: 675 - Pages: 3

Global Positioning Sytem

...developed and introduced to the society. Introduction The Global Positioning System (GPS) is selected as the tool in this assignment. Though GPS appears to be a common tool in the society, not everyone understands the process of development gone through by GPS. Global Positioning System is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The system provides critical capabilities to military, civil and commercial users around the world. It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver. Development of GPS Why the GPS was developed? In the early 1940s, the design of GPS is based partly on similar ground-based radio-navigation systems developed, and used during World War II. Its aim was to provide global coverage of services to the US military which includes position, altitude, time and global detection of thermonuclear detonations. There are two main GPS signals, a low accuracy one that is easy to pick up and a higher accuracy one that requires rough location information and the time in order to pick up. The high accuracy signal is broadcast on two different frequencies and is encrypted. It can still only be decoded by military GPS systems although some professional civilian systems detect it and make use of it without actually......

Words: 2628 - Pages: 11

Global Financial System

... 2:45 PM Page 1 Part 1 The Global Financial System in Perspective Try to imagine living in a world in which there are no financial institutions, no financial markets, and no financial assets. In such a world, there would be no opportunity to borrow against future income in order to purchase a home or an automobile, or to finance an education. Nor would you be able to save some of your current income (and, thereby, accumulate wealth over time) to handle the future expenses of a growing family or retirement. Businesses could not come up with the resources needed to produce the goods and services you like to consume. There would be no way to acquire insurance against sickness and death. Even the simple act of buying food would become extremely difficult, requiring you to barter simply to survive. The financial system has emerged to fill these and many other critical needs that require some separation in time between the use of resources (such as capital and labor), the production of goods and services, and the actual consumption of those goods and services desired. Financial markets and institutions deal with these issues and provide for the smooth functioning of modern economies, enabling resources to find their way to their most highly valued use. In so doing, the financial system dramatically enhances the efficiency of the economy and raises our standard of living. In order to set the stage for our study of the global financial system, Part One of Money and Capital......

Words: 12886 - Pages: 52

Global Positioning Systems

...Running head: GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEMS Global Positioning Systems BUSI512: Managerial Information Technology Key Term: Global Positioning Systems Definition: According to Haag, Baltzan, and Phillips (2008) a global positioning system (GPS) is “a device that determines current latitude, longitude, speed, and direction of movement.” (p. 188). According to Dictionary.com (2008), a global positioning system (GPSP is “a global system of U.S. navigational satellites developed to provide precise positional and velocity data and global time synchronization for air, sea, and land travel.” Article Summary: “Secure Tracking for Critical Applications” by Chris Wullems, Alessandro Pozzobon, and Oscar Pozzobon In their article, Wullems and the Pozzobons discuss the importance of safeguarding Global Position System (GPS) tracking applications against security threats. They explain how users should be educated on the weaknesses in the technology so they can be aware of the proper procedures and tools to protect themselves. The authors start off by explaining the safety and security advantages of GPS technology with regards to vehicle tracking and remote monitoring systems. After briefly discussing those advantages, they then segue into the downside of the technology, and the inherent dangers involved in failing to adequately secure the technology. They refer to the technology as “a double-edged sword” without......

Words: 2813 - Pages: 12

America and the Global Legal System

...Introduction The global legal system is a very complicated and vague network of international, state, and non-government bodies. Each organization influences each other, but it is evident that the United States holds a singular importance in the system. Ever since the country entered the global stage, a far change from its beginnings as a nation with expressed neutrality, it has continuously played a growing part. The United States is able to play a part in the global legal system through its large influence in foreign affairs. Considered the current hegemon, it has been able to for simplicity sake dictate through its many outlets its preference of a legal system. They have been successful in this agenda with the assistance of the powerful Department of Justice, their numerous government agencies, as well as with the influence of American economic and humanitarian programs, among others. This paper will try to explain the United States’ power and influence of the global legal system, through practices such as transgovernmentalism and positive comity as well as by such bodies as the United States Supreme Court, the Department of Justice, the State Department, and the U.S. Agency for International Development. Also investigated is the United States’ role with international bodies such as the International Criminal Court, an organization that America disagrees with and has refused to join. Some questions however remain; through its global programs......

Words: 3543 - Pages: 15

Global Positioning System

... GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) ABSTRACT : Modern technology offers us an affordable mechanism called “GPS” which can help us find our way in situations like lost in a completely unknown place, hiking, snowmobiling, snowshoeing, mountain -biking, fishing, cross-country skiing, ORV expeditions, hunting and many others. GPS tells us exactly where we are on the planet at any time. It can do this with precisions ranging from exact precision to points within a 40-foot range. These variations dep end on the model and type of the GPS receiver you have. GPS is a worldwide radio-navigation system formed from a constellation of 24 satellites and their ground stations. GPS uses these satellites as reference points to calculate positions accurate to a matter of meters. In fact, with advanced forms of GPS you can make measurements to better than a centimeter! In a sense it's like giving every square meter on the planet a unique address. GPS receivers have been miniaturized to just a few integrated circui ts and so are becoming very economical. And that makes the technology accessible to virtually everyone. These days GPS is finding its way into cars, boats, planes, construction equipment, movie making gear, farm machinery, even laptop computers. CITC (CE DEPT.) 1 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) 1.0 BACKGROUND AND HISTO RY : GPS network has been around longer than the Personal Computer. The US Department of Defense designed this system back in the 1970’s. It was (and......

Words: 4789 - Pages: 20

Gps(Global Positioning System)

...Global Positioning System was developed by the United States' Department of Defense. It uses between 24 and 32 Medium Earth Orbit satellites that transmit precise microwave signals. This enables GPS receivers to determine their current location, time and velocity. The GPS satellites are maintained by the United States Air Force. GPS is often used by civilians as a navigation system. On the ground, any GPS receiver contains a computer that "triangulates" its own position by getting bearings from at least three satellites. The result is provided in the form of a geographic position - longitude and latitude - to, for most receivers, within an accuracy of 10 to 100 meters. Software applications can then use those coordinates to provide driving or walking instructions. Getting a lock on by the GPS receivers on the ground usually takes some time especially where the receiver is in a moving vehicle or in dense urban areas. The initial time needed for a GPS lock is usually dependent on how the GPS receiver starts. There are three types of start - hot, warm and cold. The hot start is when the GPS device remembers its last calculated position and the satellites in view, the almanac used (information about all the satellites in the constellation), the UTC Time and makes an attempt to lock onto the same satellites and calculate a new position based upon the previous information. This is the quickest GPS lock but it only works if you are generally in the same location as you were when......

Words: 476 - Pages: 2

Spectrum Management and the Global Positioning System; a Case Study in Interagency Coordination

...Global Positioning Sytem Objectives   a. To study on the underlying knowledge used in the development of the GPS and how and why the GPS was developed. b. To research on the use of the GPS including the profile and type of user, the purpose it is used for and the developments together with new knowledge created through the use of GPS. Problem statement In this developed society, it is obvious that mankind has arrived at yet another golden era with rapidly advancing technology. The 21st century has appeared that human are at busiest to compete to gain wealth by exploiting all possible resources. However, busy lifestyle has caused issues such as traffic congestion. Time always appears to be a resource easily hit scarcity. This era where information is the riches has invoked the demand of mankind on a tool to navigate so that time will not be wasted when they are lost in traffic. Therefore a tool to guide direction is developed and introduced to the society. Introduction The Global Positioning System (GPS) is selected as the tool in this assignment. Though GPS appears to be a common tool in the society, not everyone understands the process of development gone through by GPS. Global Positioning System is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The system provides critical capabilities......

Words: 300 - Pages: 2

Global Positioninh System

...Social Impact of the Global Positioning System (GPS) A Paper Submitted to Ann Holms By Writing 2E (11:00-12:50) February 15, 2005 1 GPS – A Navigational Improvement Up to now, navigation has been considered a skill. It took work and knowledge to use a map and compass. In fact, during America’s colonial period, only gentlemen were allowed to learn such techniques. For example, if an ordinary British redcoat was spotted attempting to learn to navigate, he would be hung. Only the officers who were considered gentlemen were allowed to conduct such education [Norman, 1998]. However, as we enter the twentieth century, a new technology emerges to cover the distance between a knowledgeable navigator and an ordinary person. This technology is Global Positioning System (GPS). With a click on a screen, an ordinary person can find his or her way via a complex system involving satellite technology. Essentially, the GPS satellites transmit a signal to receivers on Earth; the GPS receivers then compare the time the signal was transmitted to the time it was received [Leick, 2004]. The results proved extremely precise. However, the new technology not only improves society but hinders it as well. GPS technology improved navigational accuracy significantly in the military, in the economy, and in our ordinary lives; however, it may cause problems for people who don’t have the required knowledge to navigate and it offers an easier way for criminals to accomplish illegal tasks.......

Words: 1167 - Pages: 5

Offshoring at Global Information Systems

...Kristen Valla BBMBA 9111 Case Study 1 Offshoring at Global Information Systems, Inc. Background/Overview In 2004, Global Information Systems, Inc. began to put into motion the consideration of offshoring 3,000 jobs from here in the U.S to company locations in China, India and Brazil. These were highly compensated job positions. About half of GIS is separated into a division known as Global Services Divisions. A considerable portion of GSD’s business came from customers outsourcing their business process needs. GSD began to seek ways to cut costs and improve performance by “offshoring” certain activities in order to present the most attractive value proposition to potential customers. This case examines the issue of offshoring high-tech jobs different perspectives. The topics presented include determining the stock price effects of offshoring, examining the economic consequences of offshore work for both transmitting and receiving countries, when the consequences of non-competitive offshoring, and thinking about the challenge of investing in a career that is vulnerable to future offshoring. Opportunities/Challenges GSD has programming centers established in Bangalore, India; Shanghai and Dalian in China as well as Sumare, Brazil. That being said, with profit being a company’s number one concern, GSD could only consider the possibility of replacing jobs here in the United States with jobs offshore. The dollar amount of savings would be staggering. When all......

Words: 922 - Pages: 4

Global Positioning System and the Future

...1 Global Positioning Systems and The Future Nicole Loeffler ITT Technical Institute GS1140, Problem Solving Theory Mr.Shofner September 27, 2014 2 Global Positioning Systems and The Future Since 1960, Global Positioning Systems have come from a U.S. Air Force secret to a cellular phone requirement for personal safety in 1999. Today many civilian GPS users have come to conflicting arguments as to whether or not GPS is here to help or hinder us. Between foreign nations such as China working to have successfully launched 35 satellites by 2020, and Superior court trials arguing violation of privacy… Has GPS found a competitor? What GPS does for us GPS is used daily for coordinating airliners (NextGen), city transit, package delivery, keeping track of our children as well as felons under adult supervision by ankle monitor. In many search and rescue situations, natural disaster and criminal monitoring or investigating, time is as critical as life or death. On August 6, Fox News published a story on Precise Innovations kidsport GPS band developed by a concerned parent Brian Sullivan. A device that will give parents there child’s direct location to a partner app on the parent’s cellphone within 10 feet of the child. This device has a panic button to notify the parent if the child wonders outside the “geo-fence” (the perimeter the parent sets). In 2005 GPS was used with GIS (Geographic......

Words: 1029 - Pages: 5

Global Positioning Systems

...Global Positioning Systems The popular mobile technology known as the global positioning system (GPS) was originally created for military use. The system as we know it today, known as NAVSTAR began development over 30 years ago, but it took close to two decades to become fully operational (Paleo, 2007, p. 789). The current GPS system uses a cluster of 24 satellites that can pinpoint the location of a person or object using latitude, longitude and altitude as the coordinates, however predecessors to this system relied on inertial navigation, and were in use in submarines and military aircraft (Pace, 1995 pp.237-238). GPS Usage Consumers were early adopters of navigational systems. As early as 1981, consumers were exploring ways of making navigation a more mobile enterprise with instruments such as the Honda Electro Gyro-Cator, which was basically a back-lit box that a user could insert plastic maps, mark their current position, and then allow a gyroscope take care of route guidance (Lavrinc, 2007). GPS systems today are far more portable and accurate. Originally offered only as standalone devices, GPS systems can now be found in many mobile devices such as higher end laptops, most tablets, and smartphones. GPS technology has also expanded its use beyond personal navigation into business operations and personal entertainment as well. GPS technology has been used to enhance additional aspects of our lives, including recreation. GPS enabled golf carts are one of these......

Words: 705 - Pages: 3

Terracog Global Positioning Systems- Conflict and Communication on Project Aerial

...Written Analysis and Communication I Assignment 1: Terracog Global Positioning Systems: Conflict and communication on project Aerial Submitted to Dr. Gita Chaudhuri By Viswesh Kurtarkar Section: B On 08.07.2014 ------------------------------------------------- Business Memorandum Date: 08 Jul. 14 To: Emma Richardson, Executive Vice President From: Viswesh Kurtarkar, Executive Assistant Subject: Recommendation to Terracog’s new venture, Project Aerial. Case Analysis summary Terracog specializes in high-quality global positioning systems. They are skilled at translating market and user feedback into outstanding products. Their GPS line of products were the finest in the market, applauded for its durability, navigational accuracy and value added features. In October 2006, Posthaste launched BirdsI, a handheld GPS that displayed satellite imagery, and it took the market by storm. Terracog had not anticipated such response from the market as they felt the users we smart enough to choose performance over graphics. The large response from the market for Posthaste’s BirdsI saw Terracog decide to launch Project Aerial by October 2008, it very own product with satellite imagery. As time was a constraint to get the product in the market, it was decided to redesign the existing GPS platform. The Design team provided the product design as requested by sales team by December 2007. Initial cost estimates of $550 provided by production department were......

Words: 1484 - Pages: 6

Global Distribution System

...Global Distribution System A Global Distribution System is basically a centralized database that is accessible to its subscribers through the use of computing terminals. The The objective of a GDS is to distribute a comapny's products to as many people as possible and in the most effective and cost efficient ways so that they can be purchased. The use of a global distribution sytem is very important, especially now days. A GDS is used for inventory control and rate management, as a data repository, for data dessimination, for revenue generation, and for stratigic positioning. One role a GDS plays in the hotel industry is to process transactions, controlling, and reporting room inventory and hotel rates. A second way a GDS is used in the hotel industry is a data repository. This keeps track of important guest information such as preferances, profiles, and buying patterns. The third funtion of the global distribution system is the dissemination of vital information like inventory availability, rates and hotel information and in real time for access by all service associates which allows them to perform their jobs more efficiently. A hotel GDS is also used as a source of revenue, and not just for room nights or meeting sales and revenue maximization but through fees charged for participation and processed transactions. Lastly a hotel GDS provides access to markets, lets a company implement unique functionality and selling strategies, builds strategic alliances trough......

Words: 300 - Pages: 2

Love+Sling (2018) 720p HDRip 750MB Ganool 44 minutes | A Jolly Christmas from Frank Sinatra 50th Anniversary | Thư Cho Vợ Hiền