How Accurate Is It to Say That the Growth of the Reformist Groups in the Years from 1881 Was the Main Cause of the 1905 Revolution?

In: Historical Events

Submitted By bmcollins1
Words 1260
Pages 6
The 1905 Revolution in Russia took place under the reign of Nicholas II and was caused by a range of long and short term factors, some of which had a greater impact than others. Reformist groups did have an effect in Russia; however it is debatable whether they were the main cause of the revolution, or whether they were a contributing factor along with other factors such as peasants, the middle class, the urban proletariat and the army/navy.
The reformist groups operating in Russia from the years 1881 were the Social Revolutionaries, Social Democrats, Populists and the Liberals (split into the Octoberists and the Kadets). Each of the reformist groups were acting in response to the continuous repressive Tsarist system in which they did not have the right to meet and operate , and were monitored by the Okhrana prior to 1905, however, some parties acted more radically than others. The Social Revolutionaries had the main aim of redistributing land to the peasants. In 1896, they formed the Union of Social Revolutionaries and murdered over 2000 aristocrats and ministers (including the assassination of Minister of the Interior Plehve in 1904) and were supported by the Peasantry. The Social Democrats were a Marxists party which organised strikes in St.Petersburg, in 1900 founded a newspaper called ‘Iskra’ (the Spark), but the two sides of the party meant that they split into the Bolsheviks led by Lenin and the Mensheviks led by Martov in 1903. This split made it difficult for the party to be united in any action that would be great enough to cause the 1905 Revolution. Another reformist group operating in the lead up to the 1905 Revolution were extremely radical as they had a terrorist faction called the ‘People’s Will’. The People’s Will group were responsible for the assassination of Alexander II and took radical action operating underground. The Liberals were not as…...

Similar Documents

To What Extent Was the Russo Japanese War the Cause of the 1905 Revolution?

...Anna Stanley To what extent was the Russo Japanese War the cause of the 1905 Revolution? Russia was in an extremely delicate state before the 1905 Revolution. There were many causes behind leaving Russia’s population increasingly alienated, provoked, and feeling let down by the Tsar. .. ..The Tsars plan to use a successful war in the far East as an opportunity to divert peoples attention from the deteriorating conditions back home hopelessly backfired. There was mass humiliation in defeat and the Russo Japanese war irrevocably revealed the inefficiency, weakness and corruption of the Tsarist state. ..However, the Russo Japanese War wasn’t entirely to blame for the 1905 revolution. Nevertheless, there was a great impact caused by the Army’s embarrassing mistakes. ..The army highly underestimated the capability of the Japanese. Firstly, the Army lost the battle of Mukden, One of the largest land battles to be fought before WW1. Russian casualties amounted to nearly 90,000. The Russians had also lost most of their combat supplies as well as most of their artillery and heavy machine guns. ..The Russian Army was also defeated in the battle of......

Words: 816 - Pages: 4

To What Extent Were Groups from 1881 Responsible for the 1905 Revolution

...Groups from 1881 were undoubtably a contributor toward the 1905 revolution but it can be argued on whether they were the main cause. The SRs were probably the biggest group fuelling the 1905 revolution. The social revolutionaries were radical in their ideology, they believed that all land should be taken from the rich and given to the peasants along with completely getting rid of the Tsar. The SR's took radical action to achieve their goals such as assassinating the Tsars uncle grand Duke sergei. The SRs would be one of the main causes of the 1905 revolution as they had such a broad appeal, which certainly made them attractive amongst the uneducated masses, whom are the peasants and the peasants were desperate for change. Peasants would want reform one way or another due to their poor standards of life. although Witte reforms seemed to be the best course of action for Russia, in the long term it was not. Witte increased tax on peasants to feel industrialisation which would have obviously increased peasants will for change since they had no money as it is. Workers in the cities will also feeling the aftermath of Wittes reforms, the economy started to slow down in the late 19th century which led to the workers real incomes falling by 20% which meant that imported goods or necessities couldn't be easily purchased when the price increased Since the workers had such bad living and working conditions on the 22nd of January a priest Father Gapon gathered 150,000 people......

Words: 486 - Pages: 2

How Far Was the Russo-Japanese War Responsible for the Outbreak of the 1905 Revolution?

...How far was the Russo-Japanese War responsible for the outbreak of the 1905 Revolution? The Russo-Japanese War lasted from 1904 to 1905, and arose from both Japan and Russia’s desire for expansion and dominance in Korea and Manchuria. Russia suffered many great defeats in this war, against a nation that was considered inferior and was not one of the Great Powers. This humiliated the people of Russia, and caused them to lose confidence in Tsar Nicholas II, as well as causing great military, economic, and political problems for Russia. This therefore caused the Russo-Japanese War to be partly responsible for the outbreak of the 1905 Revolution. Huge military defeats were caused by the Russo-Japanese War, which highlighted the weakness of the military and caused national humiliation, thus contributing to the outbreak of the 1905 Revolution. An example of such a defeat was in January 1905 when the army had to surrender their Port Arthur naval base in Northern China, which they had possessed before the start of the war. Another example of a great failure of the military was at the Battle of Tsushima in May 1905. The Russian Baltic fleet consisting of the 35 warships had sailed from northern Europe to the Far East, only to lose 25 warships in a defeat by the Japanese navy. The crushing of Russia's military added impetus to the 1905 Revolution, as it made the people of Russia aware of the weakness of their military and ashamed to be Russian. They were losing to a nation very......

Words: 1291 - Pages: 6

What Were the Causes of the 1905 Revolution?Why Did the Revolution Fail to Overthrow the Tsarist Regime?

...What were the causes of the 1905 Revolution? Why did the Revolution fail to overthrow the Tsarist Regime? The Revolution of 1905 was the first time the Tsar had faced open opposition from so many groups in Russian society at the same time. It involved peasant disturbances, strikes, naval mutinies, nationalist uprisings and assassinations. This essay aims to examine the different causes of the Revolution of 1905. Short and long-term causes will be considered, and economic, political, military and social factors will be discussed. The essay will also explain why the Revolution ultimately failed to overthrow the Tsarist regime. A long-term social and economic cause of the 1905 Revolution was the continuing dissatisfaction of both peasants and landowners to the Emancipation Edict of 1861. Although this piece of legislation had brought an end to serfdom, peasants still remained tied to the village commune (mir) and were angry at the redemption payments they were expected to pay in return for the land they had received. They believed more, and better quality, land should have been given to them at no cost. Their anger was made evident during the peasant disturbances of 1902. The landowners were also unhappy with the terms of emancipation. They lost the free labour of their serfs and a large amount of land. As a result many were facing huge debts by 1905. Another long-term cause of the 1905 Revolution was the general disappointment with which many Russian people viewed......

Words: 1375 - Pages: 6

How Accurate Is It to Say That the Spread of Revolutionary Beliefs Was the Main Reason for the Fall of the Qing Dynasty 1911-12?

...How accurate is it to say that the spread of revolutionary beliefs was the main reason for the fall of the Qing dynasty 1911-12? This essay will be looking at how much of a contribution the spread of revolutionary beliefs in China had in the fall of the Qing Dynasty. In order to determine the importance of this I will therefore also be looking at other factors such as, foreign interference, double tenth and the inability to change. I believe it is partially accurate to say that the spread of revolutionary beliefs was important in the downfall of the Qing Dynasty; however it wasn’t necessarily the most important factor. This can be determined from the effects of Sun Yatsen’s anti-government movement in China. Initially, the extreme need for revolution and reform stemmed from Cixi’s need and desire for conservatism. Her oblivious attitude towards the failure of the government angered many people and essentially gave reformers the ammunition to spread their own beliefs. As previously mentioned, Sun Yatsen was one of the people who felt strongly about changing the way things worked in China. He was particularly open minded and due to his education abroad had adopted a Westernized style of thinking. Thus, Yatsen attempted to modernise and regenerate China by removing foreign control and reasserting their unique character and greatness by forming the revolutionary alliance in 1905. Within this, his greatest belief was that the only way in which China would be able to modernise was...

Words: 1312 - Pages: 6

How Accurate Is It to Say That the Growth of Reformist Groups in the Years from 1881 Was the Main Cause of the 1905 Revolution?

...In 1905 Tsar Nicholas II has faced a revolution in 1905 which was caused by the growth of reformist groups, however also other factors such as weak Tsarist regime of repression, Tsar's leadership, poor conditions and Bloody Sunday contributed towards the breakout of 1905 revolution. The growth of opposition is considered to be a significant factor contributing towards the 1905 Revolution because they were developing the desire for moderation which was to be achieved by a revolution. The assassination of Alexander II by people's will, had the consequences of inspiring other opposition groups to form such as Social Revolutionaries and Social Democrats, however the assassination was also the factor deciding upon ruling by repression under Alexander II followers. However lack of freedoms, russification, Ohkrana and heavy taxation all encouraged the opposition groups to form even at a faster rate as the public dissatisfaction was rising. By 1905, those groups were targeting different aspects of society from peasants to workers who formed 80% of the total population. This wide spread of ideas opposing Tsarist rule could be therefore responsible for the 1905 revolution however it has to be underlined that 1905 revolution has started with strikes organised by workers which would mean that there may have been a significant growth in opposition groups however 1905 revolution took place despite them rather than because of them. Additionally, the poor conditions created by great......

Words: 768 - Pages: 4

Causes of the 1905 Revolution in Russia

...The cause of the 1905 revolution was mainly due to the Tsar Government’s failures of solving the problems faced by the population. The populace of Russia mainly faced the problems of poverty, starvation and disease. This is mainly due to the fact that 80% of the population were peasants, and had to work long hours for low pay. This leads to them living in poor housing and shelter, eating terrible food and having terrible hygiene. The population that worked in the industries in St Petersburg and Moscow faced no better conditions, for there was overcrowding and they suffered from the very same poor living conditions as the peasants. Yet, with all these problems faced by the peasants and the workers, many of these were not addressed. Although Sergei Witte, a Russian politician, made many policies on expanding the industry, the worker’s life grew no better, and the agriculture sector was mostly ignored. The overall unhappiness and dissatisfaction of the general populace was exacerbated by the failures of the Tsar in the Russo-Japanese war from 1904-1905. Because of the gradual accumulation of dissatisfaction toward the government from the populace, strikes eventually started to take place throughout the country. The tensions all came together on 22 January 1905, Sunday when Father Gapon led a group of protestors to hand over a petition to the Tsar. The protestors were all brutally murdered by the soldiers as ordered by the Tsar. This only managed to worsen the general feelings of...

Words: 1067 - Pages: 5

To What Extent Was the Tsarist Economy Transformed Between 1881 – 1905?

...To what extent was the Tsarist economy transformed between 1881 – 1905? The torpor of the Russian economy compared to other European Great Powers was a prominent predicament to both Alexander III and Nicholas II. In order to sustain Russia’s Great Power status, both Tsars engaged in a policy of economic renewal between the years 1881 and 1095. Despite success in managing to proliferate economic growth rates, the attempts of economic reform between 1881 and 1905 weren’t sufficient in order to make Russia’s economy strong enough to fully maintain Russia’s ‘Great Power’ status as Russia still lagged behind the other Great Powers come 1905. (92) The main quandary facing the Russian economy was its lack of industrial capacity and both Alexander III and Nicholas II endeavoured to invigorate Russia’s industrial competence through a policy of State Capitalism. Witte played a main role in attempting to overcome this vast hindrance. One of Witte’s main policies was to acquire capital to invest in the industry of which he executed through foreign loans and heavy taxes; through this Witte succeeded in creating the centrepiece of his system – the Trans-Siberian railway. This in turn would provide the communication system essential to exploit the economic potential of Russia by allowing the export of raw materials. Witte also had economic success with raw materials. Coal and oil increased by 150% and iron by 200%. With the accomplishment of the railway and the increase in raw......

Words: 765 - Pages: 4

How Far Was the Russo-Japanese War Responsible for the Outbreak of the 1905 Revolution?

...The Russo-Japanese War lasted from 1904 to 1905, and arose from both Japan and Russia’s desire for expansion and dominance in Korea and Manchuria. Russia suffered many great defeats in this war, against a nation that was considered inferior and was not one of the Great Powers. This humiliated the people of Russia, and caused them to lose confidence in Tsar Nicholas II, as well as causing great military, economic, and political problems for Russia. This therefore caused the Russo-Japanese War to be partly responsible for the outbreak of the 1905 Revolution. Huge military defeats were caused by the Russo-Japanese War, which highlighted the weakness of the military and caused national humiliation, thus contributing to the outbreak of the 1905 Revolution. An example of such a defeat was in January 1905 when the army had to surrender their Port Arthur naval base in Northern China, which they had possessed before the start of the war. Another example of a great failure of the military was at the Battle of Tsushima in May 1905. The Russian Baltic fleet consisting of the 35 warships had sailed from northern Europe to the Far East, only to lose 25 warships in a defeat by the Japanese navy. The crushing of Russian’s military added impetus to the 1905 Revolution, as it made the people of Russia aware of the weakness of their military and ashamed to be Russian. They were losing to a nation very few had heard of and it was humiliating. However, many of the defeats to the Russian......

Words: 1774 - Pages: 8

How Far Were the Divisions Among Its Opponents Responsible for the Survival of Tsarist Rule in the Years 1881-1905?

...How far were the divisions among its opponents responsible for the survival of tsarist rule in the years 1881-1905? (30 marks) Around Europe the world’s great powers were developing, both economically and socially through the benefits of industrialisation, except that was for Russia, who was now the most economically backward. The climate for change was surrounding its empire. The people of the empire were ready for a revolution yet Russia’s tsarist rule managed to survived from 1881-1905 under the rule of Alexander III who ruled from 1881-1894 and his son Nikolas II who ruled 1894-1905. Tsarist rule in Russia had its many opponents from the larger radical parties such as the Social Democrats and the Social Revolutionaries, however some argue that it was the divides in these groups and society as a whole that had delayed the revolution whilst others believe it was the result of external factors that allowed the tsarist regime to continue through the animosity it faced. A major divide in the opponents of tsarist rule was class. The divide in personal wealth was larger in Russia than in any other world super power. With the landed classes obtaining most of the wealth and the peasantry and former surfs who made up 80 % of the population however barely getting by, this economic divide caused a major divide in society. The educated classes apposed the tsarist regime due the fact it halted their position in society not allowing them to move up and benefited only the landed......

Words: 1385 - Pages: 6

How Did the Tsar Survive the 1905 Revolution?

...How did the Tsar survive the 1905 Revolution? The Russian revolution of 1905 was triggered by the event of “Bloody Sunday” and continued to escalate with various protests against the Tsar’s refusal to make political concessions and an accumulation of economic factors like poor working conditions, high taxes and famine. There were numerous aspects which contributed to Tsar Nicholas II surviving the 1905 Revolution. Collectively these enabled the Tsar to survive, however the most significant of these was the loyalty of the Russian army during the period. Without the reliance he had upon the Army, the Tsar may not have been ultimately successful in surviving the revolution. The army remaining loyal to Tsar Nicholas was indeed crucial to him keeping his power, as they were able to majorly control the opposing threats; the disturbances throughout Russia were crushed by the army. For example December saw an armed uprising in Moscow, largely involving the Bolsheviks; this revolt resulted in over 1000 people being killed as Tsarist soldiers controlled the situation. Loyal units identified in the army were used to close down the St Petersburg Soviet that represented 96 factories, while mutinies within the army were met with brutal suppression. Through the use of the army, over the next year the Tsarist Government were able to overpower all revolutionary activity. Their actions included the killing and exportation of thousands of workers, beating up children, arrest of thousands......

Words: 1048 - Pages: 5

1905 Revolution

...How far was the Russo-Japanese War responsible for the outbreak of the 1905 Revolution? The Russo-Japanese War lasted from 1904 to 1905, and arose from both Japan and Russia’s desire for expansion and dominance in Korea and Manchuria. Russia suffered many great defeats in this war, against a nation that was considered inferior and was not one of the Great Powers. This humiliated the people of Russia, and caused them to lose confidence in Tsar Nicholas II, as well as causing great military, economic, and political problems for Russia. This therefore caused the Russo-Japanese War to be partly responsible for the outbreak of the 1905 Revolution. Huge military defeats were caused by the Russo-Japanese War, which highlighted the weakness of the military and caused national humiliation, thus contributing to the outbreak of the 1905 Revolution. An example of such a defeat was in January 1905 when the army had to surrender their Port Arthur naval base in Northern China, which they had possessed before the start of the war. Another example of a great failure of the military was at the Battle of Tsushima in May 1905. The Russian Baltic fleet consisting of the 35 warships had sailed from northern Europe to the Far East, only to lose 25 warships in a defeat by the Japanese navy. The crushing of Russian’s military added impetus to the 1905 Revolution, as it made the people of Russia aware of the weakness of their military and ashamed to be Russian. They were losing to a nation very......

Words: 1789 - Pages: 8

How Accurate Is It to Say That the Growth of Reformist Groups in the Years from 1881 Was the Main Cause of the 1905 Revolution?

...How Accurate Is It To Say That The Growth of Reformist Groups In The Years From 1881 Was The Main Cause Of The 1905 Revolution? I do not think that it is very accurate to say that the activity of reformist groups was the main reason for the 1905 revolution since there were only two parties really mentioned, and they were mostly threats with no action. More prominent causes were social economic and political preconditions, the Russo-Japanese war and Bloody Sunday. The most important cause of the 1905 revolution were the preconditions, especially social and economic ones. The vast majority of the Russian population were peasants living in extreme poverty, especially industry and agriculture workers, even though the economy was thriving, apart from the agricultural side of it. The Russian population was growing rapidly and there was no space for them all too live and cities like Moscow and St Petersburg were full of slums. There was not enough food to harvest, leading to famines in 1892, 1898 and 1901. Conditions like this led to the trigger conditions that set off revolutionary activities like Bloody Sunday, and other strikes and protests. The second most important cause of the 1905 revolution was Bloody Sunday which happened on the 9th January 1905, according to the Russian calendar. It had started off as a peaceful demonstration led by a priest named Father Gapon. Suddenly the Russian army units opened fire on an unarmed group of protesters marching on St Petersburg’s......

Words: 741 - Pages: 3

How Far Was the Russo-Japanese War Responsible for the Outbreak of the 1905 Revolution?

...The Russo-Japanese War lasted from 1904 to 1905, and arose from both Japan and Russia’s desire for expansion and dominance in Korea and Manchuria. Russia suffered many great defeats in this war, against a nation that was considered inferior and was not one of the Great Powers. This humiliated the people of Russia, and caused them to lose confidence in Tsar Nicholas II, as well as causing great military, economic, and political problems for Russia. This therefore caused the Russo-Japanese War to be partly responsible for the outbreak of the 1905 Revolution. Huge military defeats were caused by the Russo-Japanese War, which highlighted the weakness of the military and caused national humiliation, thus contributing to the outbreak of the 1905 Revolution. An example of such a defeat was in January 1905 when the army had to surrender their Port Arthur naval base in Northern China, which they had possessed before the start of the war. Another example of a great failure of the military was at the Battle of Tsushima in May 1905. The Russian Baltic fleet consisting of the 35 warships had sailed from northern Europe to the Far East, only to lose 25 warships in a defeat by the Japanese navy. The crushing of Russian’s military added impetus to the 1905 Revolution, as it made the people of Russia aware of the weakness of their military and ashamed to be Russian. They were losing to a nation very few had heard of and it was humiliating. However, many of the defeats to the Russian......

Words: 1774 - Pages: 8

How Far Was the Russo-Japanese War of 1904 – 1905 Responsible for the Outbreak of the 1905 Revolution?

...in 1904 to 1905 and began because of both Russia and Japans desire to expand their borders into places such as Korea. During this war, Russia was humiliated and had many defeats from a country which were considered to be inferior. The defeat of this war humiliated the people of Russia and therefore lost confidence in Nicholas II. Russia’s defeat in the war also caused problems in the Military, economic and political problems. This then means that the Russo-Japanese war was partly responsible for the 1905 revolution. The Russo-Japanese war created many huge military defeats which showed the Russian people how weak the military were which therefore caused national humiliation. With the people of Russia humiliated, they began the 1905 Revolution. An example of one of the most humiliating Russian defeats during the war was the Battle of Tsushima in May of 1905. The Russians sent 35 battleships from northern Europe to Japan. As the north of Russia was frozen over, the Russian fleet was forced to go past Africa and of an 8 month journey. When the Russian fleet finally arrived, they were overwhelmed and lost 25 of their initial 35 ships. The decisions made during this period lead to the military losing loyalty in the Tsar, for example, the strikes in Odessa. All of these problems and the fact the huge empire of Russia lose to a country that many had never heard of made Russians very humiliated. However, many argue that this did not cause the outbreak of the revolution, but only......

Words: 1302 - Pages: 6

Night Club Flashers 21 wmv | Full TV Series bean animado | Eps10 The Terror - Season 1 (2018)