How Different Environmental Variables Affect Enzyme Activity

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How Different Environmental Variables Affect Enzyme Activity
The purpose of this lab is to see if changing the temperature, pH, or concentration of enzymes effects catalase activity.
Enzymes are in every living thing. Enzymes are catalysts they speed up chemical reactions by reducing the amount of energy needed to perform them. Without them most chemical reactions would happen much too slow for life to exist. Enzymes are very special and each is designed to do one specific thing. One type of enzyme per type of chemical reaction that needs to be catalyzed. There are multiple steps to and enzyme catalyzing a reaction. First, the enzyme floats around and collides with substrates. Substrates the reactants in a chemical reaction. These substrates fit perfectly into the active site of the enzyme, the enzyme then catalyzes the chemical reaction that it is designed for, and this causes the enzyme to momentarily change shape. This new shape is called the “induced fit”. The enzyme then releases the products. The enzyme reverts back to its normal shape once it releases the products and is not permanently changed by the reaction. It then floats around and does it again and again and again. Most enzymes end in the suffix –ase. Temperature is a measure of heat. It is the disorderly movement of molecules. This movement also creates energy. When an object is hot its molecules are moving a lot more and a lot faster than in an object that is cold. Heat also moves from hot areas to cold areas, this creates a lot causing the enzymes to move with it quicker than if they were just floating around randomly. pH is a measure if the acidity of alkalinity of a substance. The normal scale goes from 1-14 with 7 at the middle as neutral. Pure water has a pH of 7, lemon juice, a very acidic substance, has a pH of about 2. Where ammonia,…...

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