How Different Environmental Variables Affect Enzyme Activity

In: Science

Submitted By ckemmerly
Words 1617
Pages 7
Title
How Different Environmental Variables Affect Enzyme Activity
Purpose
The purpose of this lab is to see if changing the temperature, pH, or concentration of enzymes effects catalase activity.
Background
Enzymes are in every living thing. Enzymes are catalysts they speed up chemical reactions by reducing the amount of energy needed to perform them. Without them most chemical reactions would happen much too slow for life to exist. Enzymes are very special and each is designed to do one specific thing. One type of enzyme per type of chemical reaction that needs to be catalyzed. There are multiple steps to and enzyme catalyzing a reaction. First, the enzyme floats around and collides with substrates. Substrates the reactants in a chemical reaction. These substrates fit perfectly into the active site of the enzyme, the enzyme then catalyzes the chemical reaction that it is designed for, and this causes the enzyme to momentarily change shape. This new shape is called the “induced fit”. The enzyme then releases the products. The enzyme reverts back to its normal shape once it releases the products and is not permanently changed by the reaction. It then floats around and does it again and again and again. Most enzymes end in the suffix –ase. Temperature is a measure of heat. It is the disorderly movement of molecules. This movement also creates energy. When an object is hot its molecules are moving a lot more and a lot faster than in an object that is cold. Heat also moves from hot areas to cold areas, this creates a lot causing the enzymes to move with it quicker than if they were just floating around randomly. pH is a measure if the acidity of alkalinity of a substance. The normal scale goes from 1-14 with 7 at the middle as neutral. Pure water has a pH of 7, lemon juice, a very acidic substance, has a pH of about 2. Where ammonia,…...

Similar Documents

An Investigation on How the Mode of Transport Affect Study, Leisure, Social Activities, and Academic Performance of Undergraduate Students

...An investigation on how the mode of transport affect study, leisure, social activities, and academic performance of undergraduate students Abstract This study seeks to investigate how mode of transport influences the activities of undergraduate students, and whether it impacts their academic performance. The activity patterns of 50 KPTM students are analysed. The respondent profile indicates that slightly more than half are females; between 21-24 years old; and currently pursuing their bachleor degree. In terms of lifestyle, large majority are average and above average financially; with 2 to 4 siblings; using private transport; and exercise irregularly. In terms of study-related activities, their academic performances are self-reported as average and above average; fair and good class attendance; only sometimes or never late for class; and considered to be more focused and attentive by their preferences to seat between the front-middle and the middle-back rows. In terms of time spent (hours per week) on the core activities, on average the students reported to study 20.6 h/week; to have leisure time for 24.6 h/week; social activities for 40.4 h/week; and working 3.4 h/week. The major findings of this study reveal that mode of transport does play an important role in student’s study, leisure, and social activities. The findings indicate that those students with private transport tend to spend slightly less time on self-study (20.4-20.8 h/week) and miss slightly more classes...

Words: 5309 - Pages: 22

Enzyme Activity

...effect of temperature, pH, and substrate concentration on Enzyme activity? Purpose: Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions in cells. They break down molecules called substrates. Each enzymes have only one substrate that breaks down. Enzymes are produced in the cells of the body and affect the rate of almost all the chemical reactions which take place in living organisms. The rate of enzymes activity is influenced by temperature, pH, and substrate concentration. The purpose of this lab was to determine the affects of enzyme activity under specific temperature changes, pH values and substrate concentration. Since heat increases the rate of most chemical reactions, the addition of heat causes faster molecular movement. Most enzymes active in living tissue becomes denatured, their secondary or tertiary protein structure breaks down, at the temperature above 40 degrees C. In the effects of pH, it is expected that the changes in pH would have an effect on the action of enzymes. Lemon juice helps keep the apple from growing, because its full of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) and it has a low acidic pH level. But extreme high levels of low pH values can result in a complete loss of enzymes activity thus leaving the apple to brown. The effects of substrate concentration, an enzyme substrate complex is formed when a substrate fits into active of an enzyme. The velocity, the rate of speed, at which the enzymes works will increase until it reaches a maximum. If......

Words: 1327 - Pages: 6

Effect of a Factor on the Activity of an Enzyme

...Effect of a factor on the activity of an enzyme Research Question: How does pH effect the activity of the enzyme amylase and the hydrolysis of starch? Hypothesis: Amylase is an enzyme that acts on starch. pH is capable of altering the structure of the active site centre in the enzyme leading to denaturation. At each pH, the enzyme activity would be relatively different. Ideally the optimum pH is 6.0 when the enzyme works best and the fastest, however if the pH is higher or lower the hydrolysis of starch will be slower. Changing the pH above the optimum will sometimes lead to denaturation of the enzyme and the change in shape of the active site. (http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/practical-biology/investigating-effect-ph-amylase-activity) Variables: Independent: The pH of the buffer solution. Dependent: The time taken for the solution to turn an opaque (lighter) blue from dark blue. Controlled: The volume of iodine solution; the volume of starch solution; the volume of buffer solutions; the volume of amylase solution; the temperature at 40°c; the time it is left in the water bath; and the concentration of the solutions. I will be using a water bath to keep the temperature constant, and to manipulate my independent variable, I will be using pH 4, 5, 7, 9, 10 by adding different pH buffer solutions with the amylase. * 50ml Amylase solution * 100ml Starch solution * 100ml Buffer solutions with pH 4, 5, 7, 9, 10 * 20ml Iodine solution Apparatus: ...

Words: 528 - Pages: 3

Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity

...Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity Analysis of Enzyme Activity: Catalase and Tyrosinase Introduction to Neurotransmitters: Acetylcholinesterase Abstract: A series of three labs were combined to observe the effects of some common biological enzymes: Catalase, Tyrosinase, and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Enzymes are catalytic proteins, that when present in a chemical reaction, are able to lower the action potential needed to create the reaction without being destroyed or altered themselves in the process. In Part A, my hypothesis stated that when Catalase is combined with H2O2 the rate of conversion to water and oxygen gas should double when 5-10 drops of enzyme is added and quadruple when 10-20 drops are added. In Part B, my hypothesis stated that increases in enzyme concentration or buffer pH the substrate of the final product will yield increased substrate, also, if the substrate concentration is increased then the enzyme will be less diluted, the buffer pH will increase, or there will be a temperature increase. In Part C, my hypothesis stated that tacrine will have an inhibitory effect on AChE, and that those effects will increase as the level of concentration increases. In all three labs I postulated that increases in temperature and concentration levels and would increase the rates and decrease time to form chemical reactions. We setup each lab with a series of increased concentrations and a control trial using DiH2O. We observed the results using......

Words: 3917 - Pages: 16

How Caffeine Affects the Body

...How Caffeine Affects the Body When we hear people talking about drug use, our minds will wander to common drugs such as Ecstasy, Marijuana, and Heroine. However, caffeine is said to be the most common drug in the world. An estimated 100 million people in the United States ingest caffeine every day, but most people are not aware that it is considered a drug. Generally, caffeine is classified as a stimulant. Stimulating the central nervous system is one of many effects caffeine has on the body’s metabolism. This stimulation can result in a person becoming more alert or more energetic. Typically, the amount of caffeine in two to four cups of coffee a day is not dangerous. However, caffeine in excessive amounts can make you anxious, restless, and irritable. It may also keep you from sleeping well and cause migraines, unusual heartbeats, or other problems. If a person chooses to stop caffeine use, they may experience severe symptoms of withdrawal. Caffeine in Foods and Beverages Caffeine isn’t exactly dangerous however the foods and beverages that contain it can be unhealthy. Foods like yogurt, ice cream, and various different kinds of candy bars have 1 to 85 mg of caffeine in each serving. Caffeine is associated with the family of heterocyclic compounds known as purines, and the drug can also be classified as an alkaloid. The chemical formula for caffeine is C8H10N4O2 . The molecular structure of caffeine With a molar mass of 194.19 grams per mole, this......

Words: 1153 - Pages: 5

How Substrate Concentration Affects a Catalase Enzyme Reaction

...Biology HL 20/9/2013 How Substrate Concentration affects a Catalase Enzyme Reaction RQ How does changing the substrate concentration affect the rate of a catalase reaction in an enzyme? Hydrogen peroxide was used as the substrate and the rate was measured by oxygen production. Hypothesis If the substrate concentration is increased then the rate of a catalase reaction will also increase until it reaches the optimal concentration or saturation point and will remain constant. This is because there will be more substrate molecules in a higher concentration therefore a higher frequency of collisions. This increases enzyme activity and more product will be formed. However at a certain concentration the enzymes will become saturated (all active sites are full), so an increase in substrate molecules will stop affecting the rate. Variables Independent Variable - Hydrogen peroxide concentration Dependent Variable – rate of catalase reaction by measuring the volume of oxygen produced after five minutes Controlled Variables – performed at room temperature (21 Celsius), catalase used (potato), weight of potato (1g) in each trial, time given for reaction to take place (5 minutes), method & apparatus Apparatus 1. Safety goggles & apron 2. Measuring cylinder, 100 cm3 (+/- 0.5cm3) 3. Large plastic tub 4. Access to sink/water 5. Clamp stand, boss and clamp 6. Rubber bung and delivery tube 7. 9 large test tubes 8. Stopwatch (+/- 0.01s) 9. Hydrogen Peroxide, range of......

Words: 1540 - Pages: 7

How Enzymes Function

...HOW ENZYMES FUNCTION SHANITA HAMLIN BIOL1402L-165 DR. MERCEDES MONDECAR 09/27/2012 INTRODUCTION: Enzymes are proteins produced by living cells, which regulate chemical reactions in the body. Enzyme activity can be affected by The experiments conducted were done to show that under optimum conditions; such as the ideal temperature, the right pH, and a higher enzyme or substrate concentration, the activity of the catalase enzyme would increase. HYPOTHESIS: Exercise 5.1 Catalase Activity-Test tube one, which contains catalase buffered at pH 7 and hydrogen peroxide, will produce the highest bubble height because it contains the proper substrate/enzyme combo. Exercise 5.2 Effect of temperature on Enzyme Activity-The test tube that is place in the incubator will produce the highest bubble height, because warm temperatures speed chemical reactions. Exercise 5.3 Effect of Concentration on Enzyme Activity-Test tube three will produce the greatest bubble height, because it has highest enzyme concentration out of all of the tubes. Exercise 5.4 Effect of pH on Enzyme Activity-The test tube with a pH 7, will produce the highest bubble column, since pH 7 is the optimum pH for catalase. EQUIPMENT: Exercise 5.1 Catalase Activity- Materials used were three clean test tubes, a black sharpie, and a ruler. Additional materials included 10mm of catalase buffered at pH 7.0, and 40mm of hydrogen peroxide for test tube. Ten mm of water, and 40mm of hydrogen......

Words: 1092 - Pages: 5

Different Environmental Value Systems

...Different Environmental Value Systems First Nation Americans (Native Americans) VS European Pioneers Native Americans are traditionally known as being rather ecocentric and tend to be deep ecologists. However, European pioneers who settled in North America during the late 1800s were known to be rather cornucopian as they followed a more capitalist system. Native Americans believed that everything was connected to each other. They had a deep respect for the natural world and thought of themselves as being a part of it and not lords who had the absolute power to do what they wanted with it. Much of their religion was tied to nature. They had a holistic approach on life, which also links, to biodiversity. This is a different view to the European pioneers as the Native Americans did not believe in a hierarchy system and assumed that humans were one part of a whole society. This can also be seen as being their belief in stewardship, where they believed that it was their responsibility to take care of the earth by living in harmony with nature and taking care of it as much as they could since their beliefs told them that everything had a spirit. Native Americans refer to the planet as being “Mother Earth/ Mother Nature” as they believed that the land itself was a living entity therefore it could not be owned by anyone. On the other hand, there were the European pioneers who would divide up the land and use it as a source of capital or a way to gain income. As for the...

Words: 782 - Pages: 4

Different Economic Integration and How Each Affect International Trade.

...Discuss the different economic integration and how each form affects international trade? Introduction Definition of economic integration: International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories. In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product (GDP). While international trade has been present throughout much of history (see Silk Road, Amber Road), it’s economic, social, and political importance has been on the rise in recent centuries. It is the presupposition of international trade that a sufficient level of geopolitical peace and stability are prevailing in order to allow for the peaceful exchange of trade and commerce to take place between nations. Economic integration is the unification of economic policies between different states through the partial or full abolition of tariff and non-tariff restrictions on trade taking place among them prior to their integration. This is meant in turn to lead to lower prices for distributors and consumers with the goal of increasing the combined economic productivity of the states. Economic integration refers to the coordination of national economic policies as a means of boosting international trade, market activity and general cooperation among economies. Formal international economic unions are a recent phenomenon, but former International Monetary Fund economic counselor Michael Mussa traces the roots of global economic integration......

Words: 2503 - Pages: 11

Enzyme Lab Report

...of Peroxidase on Enzyme Activity Gianna Crowe Bio Lab 117 October 16th, 2014 Most enzymes are proteins that speed up reactions and are characterized as catalysts. Enzymes work in such a way that when the right chemicals of a molecule are present for the enzyme, it will fully fit the shape. The part of the particular shape is called the active site of the enzyme, since this is where the reaction occurs. The molecule that the enzyme works on is called the substrate. An enzyme reaction includes a substrate (substance) that is converted to another product. The unique shape of the active site of the enzyme allows it to bind with only certain kinds of molecules, which is the substrate of the enzyme (Strobl 2014). A substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme to form a enzyme-substrate complex for a very short time, this then becomes part of a new formation and a new product of a specific reaction is formed then released freeing the active site, allowing the enzyme to repeatedly bind another substrate. Enzymes are produced by all living things, and are a necessity to life. They are responsible for constructing, synthesizing, carrying, dispensing, delivering, and eliminating the many chemicals associated in living organisms (Colpa 2014). An example for how enzymes work in living organisms would be the process of food digestion, enzymes work to break down food and speed up the digestion process. Factors that affect enzyme activity deal with environmental conditions,......

Words: 2496 - Pages: 10

Enzyme Activity in Living Tissue Lab

...Enzyme Activity In Living Tissue Lab Jaida Dieckman November 23, 2015 Background The studies done during this lab were the enzymes and there role is having proteins that are used as catalysts in living things. Also, substrates are reactants that connect to and enzymes active site. The role of the enzymes catalase in a cell is it breaks down the substrate hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is produced during normal metallic activities in the cell, but it is poisonous to the cell if it accumulates. Eventually, hydrogen peroxide will break down into water and oxygen. The accumulation of the poison in the cell would damage the cell long before it breaks down naturally. The cell naturally produces the enzyme catalase to react with the hydrogen peroxide and break it down as rapidly as it is produced to avoid destruction of the cell. The purpose of this lab was to analyze the enzymes in living tissues, represented by the pieces of liver. Also, hydrogen peroxide was used to demonstrate these effects. Procedure In this lab was tested five different substances. In part A the purpose was to observe untreated normal catalase reaction by using small tweezers to obtain two pieces of liver and one piece of each of the other tissues. Using a small beaker 30ml of hydrogen peroxide was obtained. A graduated cylinder was used to measure 3ml of hydrogen peroxide into 5 different test tubes. Then used an expo marker to mark the top of the hydrogen peroxide. A piece of liver was put......

Words: 670 - Pages: 3

Ph Affect on Enzymes

...pH is a way of expressing how acidic or basic a solution is. (Campbell “Biology” 8th ed. text, pp.52-53). An acid is a substance that increases the solutions concentration of hydrogen ions and a base reduces the solutions hydrogen ion concentration.(Campbell “Biology” 8th ed. text, pp.52-53). The pH scale shows us the pH values of some aqueous solutions including pure water, human blood and tears, which are the neutral solutions. (Campbell “Biology” 8th ed. text, pp.52-54). The pH of a neutral aqueous solution is seven, the midpoint of the pH scale. (Campbell “Biology” 8th ed. text, pp.52-54). The acidic solutions range from six to zero, zero being most acidic and the basic solutions range from seven to fourteen, fourteen being most basic. (Campbell “Biology” 8th ed. text, pp.52-54). However, most biological solutions range from a pH of six to eight. (Campbell “Biology” 8th ed. text, pp.52-54). However, there are exceptions, for example the acidic digestive juice of the human stomach has a pH of around two. (Campbell “Biology” 8th ed. text, pp.52-54). Therefore, like the proteins structures which are sensitive to their environment so is an enzymes which works better under certain conditions than others.(Campbell “Biology” 8th ed. text, pp.152-155). Enzymes are organic catalysts (a chemical that speeds up a reaction without changing itself) that engages in the transformation of one organic molecule to another but with a lower activation energy.(Bio 05LA Lab Manual- Lab# 5,......

Words: 593 - Pages: 3

How Would the Different Leadership Styles Affect the Group Communication of the Chosen Organization?

...encourages, is understanding, and fair. This leader will get members to do work. On the other hand, a negative leader will not be concern with the employee’s well being; and will not be encouraging. This leader’s will have a hard time dealing with his employees. It is all apart of being human, not to desire to be around someone you do not like. Being an effective leader requires one to put on many hats. The hats represent the styles of leadership. A leader must be able to select the appropriate style of leadership for a particular type of situation. For anyone to fully understand how leadership skills may affect group communication within an organization, it is necessary to exam the different styles. Leadership according to Webster’s Dictionary, is define “as the capability to lead. Leading involves taking control of people and a particular situation. This situation can come in all different colors and sizes as do people. A leader must be very quick to adapt to a style depending the circumstances. According to Kurt Lewin, who is known as the father of modern sociology, states that there are three main styles of leadership; Autocratic/ Authoritarian, Participant/Democratic, and Delegative /Laissez-Faire (http://psychology.about.com/b/2007/10/18/kurt-lewin-biography.htm) The first style, the leader has a do it my way because it is correct and I am an expert attitude. It is often the case, that this leader knows his stuff, and wants to do it right without......

Words: 1016 - Pages: 5

Explain How Variables Such as Social Interactions, Cognitive Processes, Environmental Variables, Cultural Context, and Biological Factors Shape What Social Psychology Is All About and How It Is Practiced. Choose One of

...investigates the ways in which our thoughts, feelings, and actions are influenced by the social environments in which we live. Social interactions help to shape who we are and how we act in different situations. The factors affecting social interaction fall into five major categories. They are the actions and characteristics of others, basic cognitive processes, ecological variables, cultural context and biological factors. The Cognitive processes such as perception, memory and inferences play a key role on the understanding and behavior of every individual in the society. Reactions to certain situations by an individual strongly depend on the memories of others past behaviors and the inferences an individual formed about these behaviors. If anybody wants to clearly understand the causes of others behavior in a social situation it is a must that one should understand what went on in the thinking pattern and understanding process of those people when they behaved in a particular social situation. For example, if your friend sets an appointment with you in a particular time. You are waiting for him at a particular point in a particular time, if he comes late what would be your reaction. In such a situation, cognitive process plays a crucial role in the social behavior and social thoughts of every individual. A study of how people perceive, think bout and remember information about others are really have a contributing effect of human social behavior. The weather and the......

Words: 951 - Pages: 4

Enzyme Activity

...Abstract Enzymes are molecules that act as catalysts in the regulation of chemical and biological reactions in humans and other species. Every organ in humans depends on enzymes, as they are essential for optimal health. Most enzymes are protein molecules, which increase the reaction rate and function best under optimal conditions or temperatures related to the environment and the host organism where the enzyme is found. In this experiment, the digestive enzyme amylase was used in order to determine the optimal temperature for enzyme function from human and fungal (Aspergillus oryzae) sources in various temperatures. The digestive enzyme amylase that will be tested is responsible for the breakdown of the polysaccharide starch into the monosaccharide maltose. In addition, using Iodine as a test marker for the presence of starch, the ability of amylase to break down starch to maltose was also investigated. In the presence of starch, Iodine turns from yellow to black. To that end, human saliva, containing amylase, and fungal amylase were each added to separate test tubes along with a mild starch solution and placed at various temperatures as follows, 0C, 40C, 60C and 95C. The mixture of amylase and starch was then plated onto spot wells containing Iodine as a marker for starch which yielded a color reaction based on the amount of starch versus the break down product, maltose. The results showed that human amylase functions optimally at 40C as demonstrated by an abrupt......

Words: 956 - Pages: 4

Dark Souls III- XATAB | ละคร วายุเทพยุทธ์ | 3:03 Foreign Music موسيقى اجنبية حماسية