Ib Bio Topic 6

In: Science

Submitted By rg497
Words 2355
Pages 10
IB Biology Topic 6
Human Health and Physiology

Introduction – The human body is composed of cells organize into tissues, tissues organized into organs and organs organized into an organ system. This chapter will cover some of the major organ systems of the boy and how those organ systems interact with each other = physiology.

6.1 Digestion
Why do we digest food? – Here is the series of the events in order: ~Ingestion: You eat the food. ~Digestion: A series of chemical reactions, whereby you convert the ingested foot to smaller and smaller molecular forms. ~Absorption: Small molecular forms are absorbed through cells of your digestive system and pass into nearby blood or lymphatic vessels ~Transport: Your circulatory system delivers the small molecular nutrients to your body cells.

Digestion solves a problem of molecular size. – Many of the foods we ingest have very large molecules –to large to pass across any cell membrane. – In order to get into our bloodstream, molecules must pass through the cell membranes of our intestines and then through the cell membrane of the capillary. Therefore any food we eat must be chemically digested to a suitable size. (Page 165)

Digestion allows you to turn molecules into ‘your own’ – Plant cells characteristically store excess carbohydrates in the form of starch whereas animals store excess carbohydrates as glycogen. – Each type of living organism has its own unique set of proteins. – When we digest food molecules we break them down (hydrolyze them) into their smallest components (as in the right-hand column of the table above.) The components then can be reassembled into larger molecules (macromolecules) that are useful to you.

The role of enzymes during digestion – Digestive enzymes are added along the way of our alimentary canal.…...

Similar Documents

Topics for Extemper

...MBA_PGDM ADMISSIONS - 2013 MICRO PRESENTATION TOPICS (SELECTION PROCESS - SESSION 1 ) Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Topic The patent war between Apple and Samsung Sl. No 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 Topic Healthy minds are happy minds Flashmobs are entertaining Inflation has caused an economic slowdown The impact of global warming on planet Earth Public-private partnership as a mantra for mutual benefits The impact of FDI in the retail sector Natural Resources management Are cyber laws adequate to control cyber crime Creativity is associated with free thinking Does freedom of speech hold good in India Peace in Israel-palestine is elusive Will the middleman lose out to FDI? What ailed Kingfisher Airlines? India the land of contrasts Can modernisation and tradition co exist Ostentation in the Indian marriage Should Sachin continue to play international cricket? The heir to the Tata throne The Indian fascination for gold The difference between knowledge and wisdom Bio-cycle sensitisation The season of financial scams The rise of regional political parties Malala Yousafzai - An icon for girl education The 'Aam Admi' political party FDI in India - Boon or bane Is India better prepared to face terrorism 4 years after 26/11 Black money in real estate Are we facing an intellectual bankruptcy in politics? The......

Words: 693 - Pages: 3

Ib Tok Essay

...IB Diploma Programme Theory of Knowledge Essay Topic: Can we know when to trust our emotions in the pursuit of knowledge? Consider history and one other area of knowledge. Candidate Name: Akanksha Vardhan Candidate Number: 002602-064 School Name: BD Somani International School School Number: 002602 Word Count: 1597 Can we know when to trust our emotions in the pursuit of knowledge? Consider history and one other area of knowledge. Bertrand Russell, the 20th century British philosopher, once said, “Man is a credulous animal, and must believe something; in the absence of good grounds for belief, he will be satisfied with bad ones.” [1]In our daily conquest to acquire “justified true belief”, [2]it is important that we are aware of the ‘good’ and ‘bad’ influences that contribute to the experience, the pursuit of knowledge, in a way that we are able to consciously weigh the validity of our knowledge claims. Many romantic writers and poets in the early nineteenth century emphasized the importance of emotion in making sense of the world. John Keats once said, “Axioms in philosophy are not axioms until they are proved upon by our pulses” [3] referring to the superiority of our core emotions (happiness, fear, anger, surprise or even disgust) - the strong feelings deriving from our moods, circumstances or relationships with others[4], in gaining an accurate picture of the truth. However, is it possible that the ‘truth’ itself is more complex and......

Words: 2038 - Pages: 9

Bio-Fuels: a Debatable Topic

...Bio-fuels: a debatable topic A warm welcome to respected dignitaries and all the participants who are present here today, My name is Swaroop. I’m pursuing M.Sc (ag) extension. I remember that my grandfather used to quote “well done is better than well said” a statement given by Benjamin franklin. Biofuels are they as green as they claim to be? It is well said -yes this fuel has a component of BIO, but is biofuel well doing in meeting all its requirements? Hmm…a debatable topic. As context of my argument, I strongly argue that they are not eco-friendly-when completely relied upon. So what are Biofuels? A biofuel is a fuel that contains energy from geologically recent carbon fixation. These fuels are produced from living organisms. Examples of this carbon fixation occur in plants and microalgae. These fuels are made by a biomass conversion (biomass refers to recently living organisms, most often referring to plants or plant-derived materials). This biomass can be converted to convenient energy containing substances in three different ways: thermal, chemical and biochemical conversion. Biofuels have increased in popularity because of rising oil prices and the need for energy security. This biofuels are 1St and 2nd generation. 1st generation conatins ethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oil mostly. The second generation biofuels are mostly made from the lignocellulosic biomass or woody crops, agricultural residues or waste. Taking a brisk turn towards my argument, There are......

Words: 1950 - Pages: 8

Topic 6 Journal Entry: Priorities

...Topic 6 Journal Entry: Priorities Katy M. Digby Grand Canyon University: UNV 303 March 16, 2014 I have a couple of personal obstacles in each category but to name one would be my family time. I enjoy after work spending time with my daughter and helping her out with her homework. This still gets done but I have noticed she is relying more on herself now that my time has been strained. Professionally I have made a few phone calls to the college and received some as well during work hours. Fortunately my boss is accommodating since I am improving my career with a higher education. The main academic obstacle I have had is re-organizing my agenda to be able to assign time for class work. I am forfeiting a little bit of time in those two departments to make time for school. Deciding priorities is done so in a manner of importance. I make a mental list of things I need to complete ranging from top priority to not so important. For instance I rate grocery shopping higher on the list than getting my nails done, or paying rent supersedes paying for college books. Some decisions are more difficult than others but if I can identify its importance I can place it in my mental list. Prioritizing school is as simple as making a plan, rating it in my mental list, and then doing the task. If I implement what I just mentioned school will be a breeze with limited sacrifice and stress. This will result in a higher GPA and will have a "snowball" effect and motivate me to......

Words: 361 - Pages: 2

Ibs-Point

...IBS–CIDB COLUMN INTRODUCTION TO THE IBS CONTENT SCORING SYSTEM (IBS SCORE) MANUAL By: Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) INTRODUCTION Prosperity and high economic growth in Malaysia has created a high demand for construction activities. As a consequence, this has attracted a huge number of foreign workers into this country to take up employment on site as unskilled labour doing manual jobs. Despite their contributions, the country is in a quagmire with a host of problems such low quality works, delays, wastages, social problems, diseases, etc. Likewise, the minimum percentage requirement is also needed for CIDB Levy exemptions. Consequently, some form of IBS content assessment is needed for the purpose. The IBS Content Scoring System (IBS Score) is a systematic and structured assessment system that can be used to measure the usage of Industrialised Building Systems (IBS) in a consistent way. wastage, less site materials, a cleaner environment, better quality, a neater and safer construction site, faster project completion, as well as lower total construction costs. The method of determining the IBS Score is designed to be a simple but effective process. Points are awarded based on the IBS Factors of the structural and wall elements used. The presence of high repetitiveness in the design as well as other simplified construction solutions shall also contribute to the total score. The points are summed up to give the IBS Score of the building. The IBS......

Words: 868 - Pages: 4

Bio Lab #6

...it absorb water from the soil. Question 4 a). No, not all the cones are the same size; there are big small, medium, and big ones. b). Some of the species grow male cones on the bottom of the pine trees, and some species grow female cones at the top of pine trees; above the male. Pines have pre-pollination barriers; spaced or timed released of pollen. c). The wings allow the pollen grain to be blown to an ovule, where it germinates. Question 5 a). Seeds are found in the cone on the upper surfaces of the cone scale. b). Staminate cones are small. Newly pollinated ovulate cone, range in size from less than one inch to more than two inches in length. Newly pollinated ovulate cone is large in comparison to staminate cones. Question 6 a). Spores are located underneath the leaves. b). The male gametophytes of the pine are smaller than the female gametophytes, they are the pollen grains released by male cones to be dispersed to female cones. c). The female gametophytes, are much larger than the male gametophytes, they remain within the ovules of the female cones of the pine. They depend on the surrounding sporophyte tissues for their nutrition. d). An ovule is a plant structure that develops into a seed when fertilized. e). An integument is a tough outer protective layer. f). Other gymnosperms are similar to pine because gymnosperm examples include non-flowering evergreen trees such as pine; because they do not contain seeds. They both are haploid and their......

Words: 1095 - Pages: 5

Bio 100 Week 6 Discussion Questions

...This pack of BIO 100 Week 6 Discussion Questions comprises: DQ 1: Post your response to the following: Describe an example of how natural selection influenced the evolution of a particular species. Include outside sources if applicable. Review a classmate Business - Management Week 6: Dealing with Customer Expectations - Case Study Case Study #2 - Week 6 Objective | Guidelines | Grading Rubrics Objective 1. Companies with Good and Bad Service: Using the DeVry Online Library (available under Course Home) and online research sources such as Google, research the customer relations/customer service reputations of two (2 - no more, no less) companies of your choice. 2. Supporting Research: Choose one company with an excellent customer service reputation, and one with a poor (or less than perfect) customer service reputation. Compare and contrast the customer service reputations of these two companies. Your paper should address the following questions. a. What is the company with good customer relations doing right? b. What is the company with poor customer relations doing wrong? c. What are the results of the actions of the companies? For instance, financial, public relations, or employee issues? d. What specific, actionable recommendations would you give for improving customer satisfaction for each company? 3. Additional requirements: Prepare a 750 word (minimum) paper addressing these...

Words: 340 - Pages: 2

Cross-Cultural Competence in Ib

...cultural differences are at stake, because of their low level of CC (Trompenaars, 1994; Mishra and Sinha, 1999). Despite the mounting volume of academic research on cultural issues in international business, firms appear not to be doing enough to prepare managers for the international business environment (Apud et al., 2003). However, given the apparent importance of the topic of CC in the study of international business, our literature review shows four surprising results. First, there is a lack of agreement on what constitutes ‘CC’. Second is the almost total absence of in-depth studies of CC in IB, with few papers focusing on the knowledge, skills and attributes that appear to be its antecedents. Third, studies of CC in IB tend to ignore the larger environments in which expatriate managers operate: the economic, political, and technological environments, for example, that can make an overseas assignment particularly challenging, as well as the contextual influences that can impede effective cross-cultural communication (Von Glinow et al., 2004). Our fourth finding is that there is an extremely broad coverage of this topic in the literatures related to workplace diversity in the US and to intercultural communications. Interest in CC in the workplace seems to have been triggered by US federal governmental regulations regarding minority populations, particularly in relation to public health and education. The study of CC in intercultural communications, on the other hand, is......

Words: 13004 - Pages: 53

Psyc3001 Topic 6

...UNSW PSYC3001 Research Methods 3 ‐ Topic 6 Lecture Slides    Dr Melanie Gleitzman  Topic 6 – Post-hoc contrast analysis, controlling Familywise error rate What inferential procedure should follow a significant ANOVA test? When ANOVA F test is significant, and have rejected homogeneity hypothesis, what should happen next is to make inferences regarding hypotheses implied by homogeneity hypothesis  make confident inferences for contrasts (and comparisons). The ANOVA F Simultaneous Test Procedure (Scheffé method) An overall test (a test of the homogeneity of population means) can be used as the basis for a simultaneous test procedure (STP), allowing for tests on all hypotheses implied by the homogeneity hypothesis (including contrasts)   1 UNSW PSYC3001 Research Methods 3 ‐ Topic 6 Lecture Slides    Dr Melanie Gleitzman  The critical value for the F STP is the ANOVA Fc: Fc = F; 1, 2 , where 1 = J – 1, 2 = N – J = J(n – 1) The decision rule for the ANOVA F test can be written as: Reject H0 : 1  2    J if F MSB F  ; 1, 2 MSE ie Rearranging we get, ie SSB  F ;1 , 2  1  MSE SSB > 1  F; 1, 2  MSE (1)   2 UNSW PSYC3001 Research Methods 3 ‐ Topic 6 Lecture Slides    Dr Melanie Gleitzman  We can use the RHS of (1) as the basis for a decision rule, allowing for a test of any contrast null hypothesis, H0:  = 0 (implied by the homogeneity hypothesis). ˆ We substitute SS ( ) for SSB in (1), giving the decision rule: Reject H0:  = 0,......

Words: 3651 - Pages: 15

Ib Chem Topic 2

...IB Chemistry – SL Topic 2 Questions 1. Consider the composition of the species W, X, Y and Z below. Which species is an anion? Species|Number of protons|Number of neutrons|Number of electrons| W|9|10|10| X|11|12|11| Y|12|12|12| Z|13|14|10| A. W B. X C. Y D. Z (Total 1 mark) 2. Energy levels for an electron in a hydrogen atom are A. evenly spaced. B. farther apart near the nucleus. C. closer together near the nucleus. D. arranged randomly. (Total 1 mark) 3. Which is related to the number of electrons in the outer main energy level of the elements from the alkali metals to the halogens? I. Group number II. Period number A. I only B. II only C. Both I and II D. Neither I nor II (Total 1 mark) 4. How do bond length and bond strength change as the number of bonds between two atoms increases? |Bond length|Bond strength| A.|Increases|increases| B.|Increases|decreases| C.|Decreases|increases| D.|Decreases|decreases| (Total 1 mark) 5. Which of the following is true for CO2? |CO bond|CO2 molecule| A.|Polar|non-polar| B.|non-polar|polar| C.|Polar|polar| D.|non-polar|non-polar| (Total 1 mark) 6. The molar masses of C2H6, CH3OH and CH3F are very similar. How do their boiling points compare? A. C2H6 < CH3OH < CH3F B. CH3F < CH3OH < C2H6 C. CH3OH < CH3F < C2H6 D. C2H6 < CH3F < CH3OH (Total 1 mark) 7. What is the correct number of each particle in a fluoride ion,......

Words: 3053 - Pages: 13

Ib Biology Guide

...International Baccalaureate Organization (known as the IB) offers four high-quality and challenging educational programmes for a worldwide community of schools, aiming to create a better, more peaceful world. This publication is one of a range of materials produced to support these programmes. The IB may use a variety of sources in its work and checks information to verify accuracy and authenticity, particularly when using community-based knowledge sources such as Wikipedia. The IB respects the principles of intellectual property and makes strenuous efforts to identify and obtain permission before publication from rights holders of all copyright material used. The IB is grateful for permissions received for material used in this publication and will be pleased to correct any errors or omissions at the earliest opportunity. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the IB, or as expressly permitted by law or by the IB’s own rules and policy. See http://www.ibo.org/copyright. IB merchandise and publications can be purchased through the IB store at http://store.ibo.org. Email: sales@ibo.org International Baccalaureate, Baccalauréat International and Bachillerato Internacional are registered trademarks of the International Baccalaureate Organization. 4076 IB mission statement The International Baccalaureate aims...

Words: 43724 - Pages: 175

Bios

...BIOS 255 Lymphatic System Assignment Student: ________________________________ Date:____________________________________ 1.  Which structure is highlighted?  [pic]    A.  thoracic duct B.  right lymphatic duct C.  cysterna chyli D.  lumbar trunk E.  bronchomediastinal trunk   2.  Which structure is highlighted?  [pic]    A.  stomach B.  spleen C.  pancreas D.  liver E.  thymus   3.  Which structure is highlighted?  [pic]    A.  uvula B.  palatine tonsil C.  pharyngeal tonsil D.  lingual tonsil E.  thymus   4.  Which structure is highlighted?  [pic]    A.  thoracic nodes B.  iliac nodes C.  cervical nodes D.  axillary nodes E.  mediastinal nodes   5.  Which structure is highlighted?  [pic]    A.  thoracic nodes B.  inguinal nodes C.  cervical nodes D.  cysterna chyli E.  mediastinal nodes   6. Which cell type transforms into plasma cells under the influence of cytokines?  A. T-Helper cells B. Antigen presenting cells C. Cytotoxic T-cells D. B-cells   7. What cell type is stimulated by Helper T-cells?  A. B-cell B. Antigen presenting cell C. Cytotoxic T-cell D. Macrophage   8.  Lymph is similar to blood plasma, but very low in   A.  protein. B.  carbon dioxide. C.  metabolic waste. D.  electrolytes. E.  sodium and potassium.   9.  _____________ are the largest of the lymphatic vessels and they empty into the _______________.   A.  Lymphatic trunks; collecting ducts B. ......

Words: 917 - Pages: 4

Lab 6 Bios 105

...of absorption of digested nutrients into the blood or lymph. 90% of absorption takes place within the small intestine and the other 10% occurs in the stomach and large intestine. 5. Large intestine Absorption of water and salt, concentration of feces. Last stage of digestion occurs in the large intestine. Bacteria ferment any remaining carbohydrates and release hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane gas. It also converts any remaining proteins into amino acids. Finally, the absorption of any remaining water and electrolytes take place. By the time chyme has remained in the large intestine for 3-10 hours it has become feces, which consists of water, inorganic salts, products of bacterial decomposition, and indigestible parts of food. 6. Appendix Dead end of cecum, some bacterial action, produces vitamin K and continues to digest. 7. Rectum Feces (undigested material and bacteria). 8. Anus Waste leaves the body and digestive system....

Words: 915 - Pages: 4

Bios

...Introduction To sum of the differences between ROM RAM BIOS and Post I will simply define the basis of each component while defining what they do. ROM is short for (Read-only Memory) Memory which data is prerecorded on a computer. ROM is simply data that cannot be eliminated even when the computer is off. When working in ROM it is difficult or nearly impossible to change. BIOS is short for the acronym (Basic Input Output System) it is a program which stores detailed information and enable the computer to boot. In addition a ROM chip located on the motherboard, it lets you access the basic setup and ensures that the BIOS will readily be available and will not de damaged by disk failures. RAM is (Random Access Memory) Memory that can be access randomly memory that can be access without touching preceding bytes. RAM is the typical memory found in most computers or printers. In addition, RAM is a volatile memory that requires power to keep information accessible. If power is lost, then memory can be lost. Lastly Post is the self-test which is activated by Bios. The post is designed to run checks on the motherboard. It necessary to use ROM for the BIOS because the ROM retains information on the computer even while shut down whereas RAM does not. Whenever a computer is being use the information is being stored on the RAM if the is ever a power shortage or the computer lose power the information is lost. RAM does not store memory when there is no power. POST beep codes make...

Words: 356 - Pages: 2

Topic 6 Study Guide

...Topic 6 Study Guide This study guide is a tool designed to prepare students for the Topic 6 Quiz. Instructors will grade the study guide for completion, not for accuracy. Download the study guide and type in your answers below the questions. Save the study guide to your computer and submit when complete. There is no need to submit the study guide to Turnitin. After submitting the study guide to the instructor, save it for use when taking the Topic 6 Quiz. The quiz will be graded for accuracy, so take time to seek the correct answers for this study guide before you attempt the quiz. Once you start the quiz, do not exit the quiz until the entire quiz is completed. Exiting out of the quiz before it is complete may result in a zero grade. Please type your answers below each question. 1. Read the Ten Commandments in Exodus 20. a. Briefly list the commandments. b. How do the first four commandments differ from the last six? 2. Read the Beatitudes, the blessings of Jesus in the opening verses of the Sermon on the Mount in Matthew chapter 5:1-12. Which one is repeated and emphasized? 3. From the lecture, what two commandments did Jesus say are the greatest? 4. From the lecture and textbook, write out the short quote that philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche made famous about truth. 5. From the textbook, describe how Raphael, in his great painting School of Athens, depicted Plato and Aristotle. 6. According to the lecture, what kind of absolute truths......

Words: 425 - Pages: 2

Egyptian Pound | World Trigger: Toubousha-hen | Montenegro