Impulsivity

In: Other Topics

Submitted By athikanazmi
Words 2683
Pages 11
-------------------------------------------------
Theories of impulsivity[edit]
Ego (cognitive) depletion[edit]
According to the ego (or cognitive) depletion theory of impulsivity, self-control refers to the capacity for altering one's own responses, especially to bring them into line with standards such as ideals, values, morals, and social expectations, and to support the pursuit of long-term goals.[74] Self-control enables a person to restrain or override one response, thereby making a different response possible.[74] A major tenet of the theory is that engaging in acts of self-control draws from a limited "reservoir" of self-control that, when depleted, results in reduced capacity for further self-regulation.[75][76] Self-control is viewed as analogous to a muscle: Just as a muscle requires strength and energy to exert force over a period of time, acts that have high self-control demands also require strength and energy to perform.[77] Similarly, as muscles become fatigued after a period of sustained exertion and have reduced capacity to exert further force, self-control can also become depleted when demands are made of self-control resources over a period of time. Baumeister and colleagues termed the state of diminished self-control strength ego depletion (or cognitive depletion).[76]
The strength model of self-control asserts that: * Just as exercise can make muscles stronger, there are signs that regular exertions of self-control can improve willpower strength.[78] These improvements typically take the form of resistance to depletion, in the sense that performance at self-control tasks deteriorates at a slower rate.[74] Targeted efforts to control behavior in one area, such as spending money or exercise, lead to improvements in unrelated areas, such as studying or household chores. And daily exercises in self-control, such as improving posture,…...

Similar Documents

Social Science

...some type of learning disability. Anderson-Krerty has substantial problems completing assignments, writing letters and saying words backwards, problems comprehending, problems with excessive motor behavior, and impulsivity. Anderson-Krerty also has been evaluated and diagnosed of having Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. At this time, she is currently not receiving medication at the request of the mother. I am very concerned that her learning disability is an impairment that results to poor school performance and learning, I would like to request an evaluation of my client Anderson-Krerty for her eligibility for special education provisions (IEP) accommodations. I have concerns that she is not progressing well in school and that she may need some special help in order to learn effectively. During the therapeutic sessions, I focused on addressing coping mechanisms related to her ADHD, focusing skills strategies, and low self esteem. I reviewed her classroom assignments and have observed her during individual session and concluded that she has some type of learning disability. Anderson-Krerty has substantial problems completing assignments, writing letters and saying words backwards, problems comprehending, problems with excessive motor behavior, and impulsivity. Anderson-Krerty also has been evaluated and diagnosed of having Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. At this time, she is currently not receiving medication at the request of the mother. I am very......

Words: 485 - Pages: 2

We Are Fucked

...impairments.[8] It is estimated that 4.7 percent of American adults live with ADHD.[9] ADHD is diagnosed two to four times more frequently in boys than in girls.[10][11] Its symptoms can be difficult to differentiate from other disorders, increasing the likelihood that the diagnosis of ADHD will be missed.[12] In addition, most clinicians have not received formal training in the assessment and treatment of ADHD, in particular in adult patients.[12] Standardized rating scales can be used for ADHD screening and assessment of the disorder's symptoms' severity.[13] Symptoms: Inattention, hyperactivity, disruptive behavior and impulsivity are common in ADHD.[21][22] Academic difficulties are also frequent.[21] The symptoms are especially difficult to define because it is hard to draw a line at where normal levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity end and clinically significant levels requiring intervention begin.[23] To be diagnosed with ADHD, symptoms must be observed in two different settings for six months or more and to a degree that is greater than other children of the same age.[24] The symptom categories yield three potential classifications of ADHD—predominantly inattentive type, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type, or combined type if criteria for both subtypes are met:[25] Predominantly inattentive type symptoms as listed by the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health may include:[26] * Be easily distracted, miss details, forget things, and......

Words: 695 - Pages: 3

Family Health Assessment

... Teaching – Learning Process (Parents with school aged diagnosed with ADHD) James C. Whear Metropolitan State University Instructor: Deborah Matthias-Anderson NURS 407-01 Family Health Nursing December 7, 2012 Objectives Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a syndrome of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. The 3 types of ADHD are predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, and combined. Diagnosis is made by clinical criteria. Treatment usually includes drug therapy with stimulant drugs, behavioral therapy, and educational interventions. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ADHD has been classified as a developmental disorder, although increasingly it is considered a disruptive behavior disorder. ADHD affects an estimated 5 to 15% of school-aged children. However, many experts think ADHD is over diagnosed, largely because criteria are applied inaccurately. According to Center for Disease Control (CDC) 2012 “The predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type occurs 2 to 9 times more frequently in boys; the predominantly inattentive type occurs with about equal frequency in both sexes. ADHD tends to run in families.” ADHD has no known single specific cause. CDC (2012) indicates that potential causes include: genetic, biochemical, sensorimotor, physiologic, and behavioral factors. Some risk factors include birth weight < 1000 g, head trauma, and lead exposure, as well as prenatal exposures to alcohol,......

Words: 977 - Pages: 4

A.D.H.D.: What Is It?

...looked down upon or cast aside from society because of their inability to conform to society's standards. If people took the time to study and be patient with ADHD diagnosed people then there won't be many cases like John Mario's. There are several symptoms of ADHD with the most noticeable as distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Causes of ADHD has been researched for many years and there are countless studies pointing to different theories such as environmental agents, genetics, and smaller alternative causes. New treatments for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are established every day but there are a few methods, medications and alternative solutions for treating ADHD that have been proven effective. The study and understanding of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder will help those diagnosed with it to better them and not be looked down upon by society. What does doodling in class, a constant need to be active and acting on impulses have in common? All three are symptoms of ADHD. The most common symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnosed people are inattention/distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. These symptoms have been studied and looked over since before the attention of ADHD came to the public eye. Mary is in Mrs. Jones 4th grade math class. Everyday Mrs. Jones must try persistently to gain Mary's attention in class because she is day dreaming. Mrs. Jones wants to bring the problem to Mary's parents but......

Words: 1576 - Pages: 7

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

...DJ Feeley Comp299 Disabilities Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, better known as ADHD is a disorder that deals with inattentiveness, over-activity, impulsivity or a combination of the three. ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder in children with 3-5% of school aged children being affected. Young boys are much more prone to being diagnosed with ADHD than girls are. Although it is not officially clear what causes ADHD may be handed down from your parents. ADHD is sometimes confused with depression, lack of sleep, learning disabilities, tic disorders and behavior problems. In most cases there are at least one other behavioral or developmental problem that goes along with a child’s ADHD. Symptoms The symptoms of ADHD are inattentiveness, over-activity and impulsivity but there are symptoms that go with each of those are well. Inattentive symptoms include failing to give close to details or making careless mistakes in schoolwork, having difficulty keeping attention during tasks or play, not listening when being spoken to directly, not following through on instruction and failing to finish schoolwork, chores or other responsibilities. Also, avoiding tasks that require constant mental effort, becoming easily distracted, forgetting daily activities and frequently losing toys, assignments, pencils, books, or other materials needed for daily tasks and activities. Hyperactivity symptoms include......

Words: 927 - Pages: 4

Hypothesis Writeup

...self-regulatory resources are depleted. Participants with high trait impulsivity and depleted self-regulatory resources will be willing to spend more on purchase items, than those with depleted resources but little trait impulsivity and those with replenished resources. This is hypothesized on the basis of the findings of previous literature which focuses on self-regulatory resource depletion and replenishment, and impulsivity. Impulsivity can be defined as the sudden, strong desire to purchase a particular item or service that may not necessarily be needed by the consumer (Vohs & Faber, 2007). It seems obvious that impulsivity and depleted self-regulatory resources would lead to potentially disastrous spending. This is evidenced by Friese and Hofmann (2009) as they have found that impulsivity influences those with replenished self-regulatory resources, encouraging impulse behaviour, whilst not affecting those with replenished self-regulatory energy levels. Vohs and Faber (2007) also conducted a study in which all three experiments support the central hypothesis that those with low self-regulatory resource levels and high impulsivity will be willing to spend more on items when compared to those with low energy levels and little impulsivity and those with high resource levels. Vohs and Faber (2007) also linked impulsivity to excitement. Verplanken and Herabadi (2001) associate impulsivity with cognitive aspects, being lack of planning and deliberation, and......

Words: 935 - Pages: 4

Research Paper

...Running head: Research Paper 1 Research Paper: Research of Articles’ Literature, Methods & Findings Running head: Research Paper 2 Research Paper: Research of Articles’ Literature, Methods & Findings My research consisted of the critique of 3 articles. Within my paper, I will summarize, critique, and capture implications of the articles. The first article is Assessing Personality in the DSM-5: The Utility of Bipolar Constructs. The second is Predicting the Behavior of Offenders with Personality Disorder: Issues for Investigative Psychology. The last article is Interactions between Bipolar Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder in Trait Impulsivity and Severity of Illness. All articles have something to do with personality disorders. The article Assessing Personality in the DSM-5: The utility of Bipolar Constructs was written by Douglas B. Samuel. The 8 page article was published by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. This article was about the DSM-5 labeling the personality disorders as categorical constructs. Most of the categorical labels can provide relatively straightforward and rapid communication about a person. These types of categories will lead to more stimulating research and generate specific treatment recommendations. There are some disadvantages to the categorical approach including the excessive diagnostic co occurrence, inadequate coverage, excessive heterogeneity within the categories, lack of meaningful or well-validated......

Words: 1116 - Pages: 5

None

...useful idea or notice a potential problem. Multitasking Multitasking is the tendency to pursue multiple goals or complete multiple tasks simultaneously. Professional Fit: People with moderate levels of Multitasking tend to be suited for jobs that require attention more than one goal or task at a time, even if the job environment involves occasional distractions or interruptions. Potential Risk: People with moderate levels of Multitasking can have difficulty paying attention to many different goals or tasks, or performing in an environment with many distractions or interruptions. Impulsivity Impulsivity is the tendency to seek out excitement and immediate rewards. Professional Fit: People with moderate levels of Impulsivity tend to be suited for jobs that are somewhat stimulating, and include some choice of available tasks and rewards. Potential Risk: People with moderate levels of Impulsivity can sometimes be overwhelmed by highly stimulating environments, and may have difficulty pursuing goals or completing tasks that require a great deal of patience. Preference for Routine Preference for Routine is the tendency to thrive in recurring or familiar environments and situations. Professional Fit: People with moderate levels of Preference for Routine tend to be suited for jobs that occasionally involve consistent, predictable, or repetitive tasks. Potential Risk: People with moderate levels of Preference for Routine may be uncomfortable with new or unpredictable......

Words: 1192 - Pages: 5

Adhd

...of 4-17, which constitutes 9.5% of the children in that age group, suffer from this malaise. The percentage of children diagnosed with ADHD, through parents has also steeply increased. It registered a growth of 22% in the time period between 2003 and 2007 alone. These are stumbling figures. Children are the future of our country and must be protected at all costs. Keeping the ever growing reach of this disease, it is imperative we educate ourselves about this ailment. An informed person is able to spot the symptoms, thereby providing the possibility of early diagnosis. Medical literature has defined ADHD as a neurobehavioral development chronic disorder. The most common and noticeable symptoms include difficulty controlling behavior (impulsivity), short attention spans and hyperactivity. But these qualities characterize childhood. Children are playful, full of energy, easily distracted and whimsical. An intensified version of these traits is ADHD. These tendencies are more severe than what usually is for the child’s age. Most of the problems persist for long periods till adulthood. An adult may suffer from this disease and not know. A child suffering from attention is easily distracted and is unable to retain his focus for long. He is easily bored and switches from one activity to other frequently. He often daydreams and is easily confused. He keeps losing things and faces enormous difficulty in completing his homework and assignments. Learning new tasks are a daunting......

Words: 1183 - Pages: 5

Adhd Patients and Criminal Activity

...hyperactivity, or being over-active (NIMH, 2008). There are three known subtypes to ADHD. The subtypes are referred to as the following: Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, Predominantly inattentive and Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive. For a person to be classified as having a predominantly hyperactive-impulsive subtype, they must have six or more symptoms of ADHD, but have fewer than six symptoms of inattention present even though inattention might still be slightly present (NIMH, 2008). To obtain a classification as being predominantly inattentive the patient must exhibit a majority of symptoms (six or more) in the inattention category and fewer than six symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present. In this situation, hyperactivity-impulsivity may still be present in the person with the disorder (NIMH, 2008). Many children with this subtype of ADHD can be often overlooked as having the disorder or displaying symptoms of the disorder. The reason behind this theory is the child can often get along with other children and sit quietly when they are instructed to do so. The child can appear to be paying attention, but in reality they are not able to focus on the task. The child will then drift away and not pay attention to the task at hand. When children display having the combined six or more symptoms of hyperactivity and inattention, they would be classified as having Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive. Most children are found to......

Words: 2472 - Pages: 10

Attention Deficit Hypercti Disorder

... 2 Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is a biological disorder that makes it hard for many children as well as adults to sit still for short as well; as long periods of time. Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors to ADHD. Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder has three subtypes. One subtype is Predominately Hyperactive-Impulse whereas most (six or more) of the symptoms are in the hyperactive impulsivity categories. Fewer than six symptoms of inattention are present although; inattention may still be present to some degree. Predominately Inattentive is the second subtype. The majority of the symptoms are in the inattention category and fewer than six symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity may still be present to some degree. Children with this subtype are less likely to act out or have difficulties getting along with other children. This child may be overlooked by teachers, and parents and go unnoticed as having ADHD. The third subtype is Combined Hyperactive-Impulsive and Inattentive. Six or more symptoms of inattention and six or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present. Most children have the combined type of ADHD. There was a time when ADHD was called Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) but, the proper and preferred term is ADHD because, it describes both of the primary features of this condition which is; hyperactive impulsive behavior. In most......

Words: 1346 - Pages: 6

Performing for Class

...believe behavioral therapy and counseling should be taken into consideration. According to the Mayo Clinic, 2015, “Standard treatments for ADHD in children include medications, education, training and counseling. These treatments can relieve many of the symptoms of ADHD, but they don't cure it. It may take some time to determine what works best for your child.” It is not necessarily the way in which ADHD is diagnosed that leaves one stumped but to what degree the symptoms can be helped in a child’s progression throughout an academic career. It has been well established that children with ADHD do face difficulties in daily life functioning including academic underperformance (Kuriyan et al., 2013). Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are all common symptoms of ADHD that have an effect on underperformance; it is also these symptoms that have caused a negative effect on a child’s performance in school. The inability to pay attention manifests in the academic area of a child’s schooling. Students usually are identified with ADHD only after consistently demonstrating a failure to understand or follow rules or to complete required tasks. “The majority of research on the relationship between ADHD and academia performance is concentrated on school-age children, as ADHD is traditionally viewed as a childhood disorder” (Daley & Birchwood, 2010). Inattention is shown in behaviors such as difficulty paying attention, being off task, being disorganized and having a......

Words: 1023 - Pages: 5

Adhd

...Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Joselito B. Diaz, MD, FPNA College of Rehabilitation Sciences Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder   Characterized by a pattern of diminished sustained attention and higher levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity in a child, older adolescent or adult, more than expected for that age and developmental level Subtypes:  Predominantly inattentive presentation  Predominantly hyperactiveimpulsive presentation  Combined presentation Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder    Inattention manifest behaviorally as wandering off task, lacking persistence, having difficulty sustaining focus, and being disorganized and is not due to defiance or lack of comprehension Hyperactivity refers to excessive motor activity when it is not appropriate; in adults may manifest as extreme restlessness or wearing others out with their activity Impulsivity refers to hasty actions that occur in the moment without forethought and that have high potential for harm to the individual  Desire for immediate rewards or inability to delay gratification Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder     Establish that the patient has either inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity or both that has persisted at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with their developmental level Several symptoms that caused impairment presented before the age of 12 Clear evidence......

Words: 3244 - Pages: 13

Symptoms & Causes of Adhd

...Symptoms & Causes of ADHD According to the American Psychological Association (2015), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) is a “persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development”. ADHD is a disorder that was initially associated with variations of retardation and has become a diagnosis of millions of children worldwide. This research synopsis will discuss the history of ADHD, symptoms and treatment for ADHD and the potential comorbity issues with ADHD. History of ADHD In an Internet video, Films On Demand (2009) states that is estimated that between 6-7 million children are on prescribed medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although medication is not the only treatment for ADHD, it seems to be the most popular resource. Some families have found behavioral therapy and a change in diet are also successful methods to treat the symptoms of ADHD. Many other issues can manifest itself as ADHD like allergies or long term exposure to lead paint; which makes diagnosing ADHD a controversial issue because like other psychological disorders. There is no physical or diagnosis test available and it is simply diagnosed based on a list of observed behaviors and is usually teacher referred for more evaluation. "A child is liable to be diagnosed ADHD if he or she steps out of line, speaks out of turn. In short, just about any sort of disorderly conduct would beget on the part......

Words: 1685 - Pages: 7

Commentary on Trends

...Glennis Gilmore McCray ENG-105 April 14, 2016 Priscilla Bamba Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is defined as Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a brain disorder marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development. Merriam Webster defines medication as a substance used for medical treatment, especially a medicine or drug. Consequently psychotropic medication is defined as any medication capable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior. Some medications such as lithium, which may be used to treat depression, are psychotropic. Also called a psychodynamic medication. When ADHD and medication are paired together the results can be amazing. However for every action there is a reaction. This reaction can sometimes overshadow the good that has been done. The trend of hidden dangers of ADHD medication, the effects of taking ADHD medication and making the right choices for your family. The hidden dangers of taking ADHD medication are discussed very often. The Harvard Medical School has stated that “Medications — chiefly the stimulants dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate — are the only proven treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with its symptoms of distractibility, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity. But the benefits of stimulants last only as long as patients continue to take them, and worries about the risks of long-term use are again in the news...

Words: 795 - Pages: 4

Fragmented Communication - 687 Words | Solo für Weiss | Chap 253