Krispy Kreme Case Study

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X 保健品营销公司的经营困境

一、公司背景介绍
X 保健品有限责任公司成立于2001 年初,是一家在中国大中城市(以广州为起点)经营保健品连锁销售业务作为公司主营业务范围的公司。该公司成立的初期(2001-2005)为家族式管理:最大股东李先生担任董事长和总经理。其妻子担任直营店分部的总经理,其弟担任特许加盟分部的总经理。从公司刚成立的时候,就确立了公司的销售模式包括以下两种模式,一种是直营店,一种是“特许加盟”。特许加盟采用的是满足急剧扩张而相对松散的经营形式, 特许加盟模式的管理因为缺乏比较正规的管理体系而比较随意, 因此公司和加盟商的关系一直都比较紧张。
在公司成立初期,公司面临的竞争较小。当时,在广州只有60 家保健品经营商,经营的品种只有不足100 个细分种类。X公司在2002 年的销售额占整个广州市场的5%左右。从1995 年左右起,中国保健品市场的起步就是从以广州、深圳为核心的南方比较发达的区域开始的。由于刚开始时候,该行业吸引的投资并不是很多,商业模式也不太固定,投资回报和风险等前景并不明朗,所以吸引到的商家规模都不是很大,整个行业的价值链都处于比较混乱的状态。行业的整个发展,同中国很多行业的发展一样,速度和效率超过了对于品质的要求。到2007 年,整个保健品营销行业的竞争已经趋于激烈,光在广州地区,有接近2500 家保健品经营商,经营的品种超过10,000个细分种类。X公司在2007年的销售额占整个广州市场的3.5%左右。价格战开始出现并且趋于频繁,涉及到的品种种类也逐渐扩大,这种价格战的势头一直越来越盛行,到2011年价格战到了顶峰。小型企业(尤其是融资能力有限的家庭式的小型企业)面临着非常巨大的压力。

二、公司经营战略和经营状况介绍
初创时期(2001--2006)
李先生认为,在中国的保健品销售市场,门店数量和运营规模,是公司赖以生存的核心竞争力。公司不论是与供应商还是客户打交道,只有门店规模扩大,才能够在议价方面有比较好的议价能力。用五力模型来分析的话,这个规模效应也是公司核心竞争力产生的核心。基于此,李先生将大部分资源都投入到快速增长的规模建设中来。在公司内部管理战略讨论大会上,李先生将公司的初创时期的成功因素总结为以下几点:
1.公司不断增长的门店数量和经营规模产生了规模经济效应;
2.公司制定了良好的激励机制,鼓励所有的员工都成长为百万富翁。公司气势磅礴的“创富计划”致使2001年当年公司就造就了1个百万富翁,5 个50万富翁。而且员工固定薪水水平较低,降低了公司的固定成本,同时也很好地刺激了各个门店的员工为持续增长的业绩而努力奋斗。
3.各个门店里面采用各种积极促销的手段和方法,扩大了我们的市场空间。基于以上的判断,再加上李先生自认为已经是一个非常成功的企业家了,他觉得自己的能力管理更大规模的公司都没有问题,因此公司并没有设置负责各个门店协调管理的强有力的领导机构(X公司的董事会由李先生自己、妻子和弟弟以及公司每一年前五名销售业绩门店经理构成。用李先生的话说,每一年的销售冠军门店都有机会在董事会里面推广他们的成功经验,销售不好的门店自然淘汰出董事会,这样使董事会永葆青春)。
表一、2001 年到2006 年,X公司销售和利润增长统计
财务绩效表现数据名称(年份) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
销售收入(万元人民币) 500 1500 3000 4500 6000 7000
门店数量(个)
(括号为加盟店数量) 10 (1) 50(20) 70(40) 100(60) 120(70) 150 (90)
毛利润(万元人民币) 250 600 900 1,125 1,200 980
净利润(万元人民币) 100 270 450 540 600 600
运营净现金流(万元人民币) 100 140 185 195 200 220

公司快速成长期和面临竞争愈来愈激烈的市场开始成熟期(2007-2008)…...

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