Mankiw Primer Capitulo

In: Business and Management

Submitted By andrea216
Words 9889
Pages 40
w ttWV -"

1 f: ! l f,

: ,
-

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El término economía

proviene de la palabra griega oikono­

( escasez

mos, que significa «el que administra un hogar». Este ori­ gen tal vez parezca peculiar a primera vista, pero, en realidad, los hogares y las economías tienen mucho en común.
Un hogar tiene que tomar numerosas decisiones. Debe decidir qué miembros van a realizar cada tarea y qué va a reci­ bir cada uno a cambio: ¿quién cocinará? ¿Quién hará la cola­ da? ¿Quién se tomará el postre que sobre en la cena? ¿Quién elegirá el programa de televisión que van a ver? En suma, el hogar debe distribuir sus recursos escasos entre sus distintos miembros, teniendo en cuenta la capacidad, los esfuerzos y los deseos de cada uno de ellos.
La sociedad tiene que tomar, al igual que un hogar, nume­ rosas decisiones. Debe decidir qué labores se realizarán y quié­ nes las harán. Necesita algunas personas para trabajar la tierra, otras para hacer la ropa y otras para diseñar programas infor­ máticos. Una vez que ha asignado a los individuos (así como la tierra, los edificios y las máquinas) a las diversas tareas, de­ be asignar también los bienes y servicios que éstos producen. Debe decidir quién comerá caviar y quién patatas, quién con­ ducirá un Porsche y quién irá en autobús.
La gestión de los recursos de la sociedad es importante porque éstos son escasos. La escasez significa que la sociedad tiene unos recursos limitados y, por lo tanto, no puede producir todos los bienes y los servicios que los individuos desean te­ ner. De la misma manera que un hogar no puede dar a todos y cada uno de sus miembros todo lo que desean, una sociedad no puede proporcionar a todos y cada uno de los individuos el máximo nivel de vida al que aspiran.
La economía es el estudio del modo en que la sociedad
. gestiona sus recursos…...

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