Materials Science

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Corrosion is an unavoidable problem that occurs almost everywhere. It can happen when a solid interacts with its environment. Corrosion oxidises metals back to some natural ore. Despite not all corrosion is unwanted, corrosion has become a growing economic concern. Taking an example of what happens in USA, corrosion of metals costs the economy almost $300 billion per year at current prices, which translates to 3-4% of GDP. Besides the economic concern, corrosion may adversely affect the environment. Worse than all those mentioned, corrosion can cause unexpected death from corrosion-related accidents. For example, the sudden collapse caused by corrosion fatigue of the Silver Bridge over the Ohio River in 1967 cost 46 lives on top of the needless-to-say millions of dollars material loss. Therefore, the benefits brought about by corrosion are outweighed by its detriments. The fact is, about 33% of these costs could be diminished by using corrosion-resistant materials.
Being defined as the sideways displacement of material from its original position on a solid surface performed by the action of another surface, wear is another mechanical property of materials that materials scientists consider when selecting materials in a design task. In order to be wear-resistant, a material must be hard and strong.
The demand for corrosion- and wear- resistant coatings is nowadays rapidly increasing, especially in oil and gas industries. The most common solutions are Hard Cr and Quench-Polish-Quench (QPQ) processes. However, these two processes affect the environment adversely. As alternatives, coating layers can be introduced to metal samples. Coatings can be done with or without electricity. If electricity is involved, the process is called electroplating. It is done by immersing the sample that is going to be coated together with an anode of the coating metal in an electrolyte…...

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