In: Business and Management

Submitted By tomnguyen
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Pages 9

The learning goal of this chapter is to teach students how to shape their messages and arguments into appropriate structures.

Since the chapter is long and contains, in effect, three mini-cases -- on Great Lakes, RAs, and Narrative -- you may choose to teach the chapter in one class and the case in the next.

One way to structure a class on this chapter is to emphasize the commonalities among logical, psychological, and narrative structures.

Beginning, Middle, and End

Both an argument (given, since, therefore) and a communication structure (introduction, body, conclusion) share the same features, that is, they have a beginning, a middle, and an end. We discuss these features in further detail in the Guides to Effective Writing and Speaking in Part Three. Here, we simply encourage the instructor to pull together some organizational principles.

Some suggestions for focusing student discussion: When defining your content, marshalling your arguments, and developing your structure, try to meet the following criteria:

Beginnings should:

1. Gain the audience's attention and focus it on your topic.

2. Explain why the topic is important, timely, or otherwise of interest.

3. Indicate the point of view you will take or suggest your conclusion.

4. Establish a relationship of mutual respect with your audience.

Middles should:

1. Develop your main argument by identifying and addressing its component parts.

2. Address subtopics according to their level of importance (either ascending or descending).

3. Clearly signal how each part of your argument fits into the whole.

4. Acknowledge and neutralize reasonable alternative proposals.
Endings should:

1. Show how your evidence and arguments lead to your conclusion.

2. Emphasize the importance of your proposal.

3. Show how the expectations raised in your…...

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