Messel Shale Pit

In: Other Topics

Submitted By arbitrary
Words 367
Pages 2
The Messel Shale Pit is located approximately 35 kilometers southeast of Frankfurt Germany in a town called Hesse. The pit is 1000 meters long, 700 meters wide, and currently, stretches 60 meters deep. It has been dated back to the Eocene age which was fifty four to thirty seven and a half million years ago. Eocene is Greek for “New Dawn”, and is most often recognized as the age of the first large land mammals.
The Pit was once a former quarry and was used from 1859 to 1971 for mining oil shale. Oil Shale is a fine grained sedimentary rock in which hydrocarbons or oil shale, can be produced. The area is considered to be a lake that sat within a volcanic crater. The oil shales in the area are said to be the result of a heavy presence of algae. The toxic gases omitted from the volcanic crater are thought to be the reason for such a high number of land animals having been fossilized.
It wasn’t until 1875 that the first fossil, a crocodile, had been discovered. Since then, numerous fish and sea creatures, thirty one plant species, 45 mammals, and 43 species of bird have been discovered. Some even had stomach contents and tissue still intact. There is no doubt that the area is extremely important to the world of science.
In 1971, the Messel Shale Pit almost became a waste dump, but thankfully the plans for the dump fell through. It wasn’t until 1991 that the site was purchased by the Hessen State for over 35 million marks. The site had contributed so much to science and education due to the fossil findings, that the UNESCO, or United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, declared it a world heritage site in 1995. It was the first and only site to have ever been declared such strictly due to its fossils.
The site is still being excavated today, and is also considered a tourist attraction in the area. There is also a museum that can be visited…...

Similar Documents

The Pit and the Pendulum

...1 The Pit and the Pendulum By Edgar Allan Poe I WAS sick—sick unto death with that long agony; and when they at length unbound me, and I was permitted to sit, I felt that my senses were leaving me. The sentence—the dread sentence of death—was the last of distinct accentuation which reached my ears. After that, the sound of the inquisitorial voices seemed merged in one dreamy indeterminate hum. It conveyed to my soul the idea of revolution—perhaps from its association in fancy with the burr of a mill-wheel. This only for a brief period, for presently I heard no more. Yet, for a while, I saw—but with how terrible an exaggeration! I saw the lips of the black- robed judges. They appeared to me white—whiter than the sheet upon which I trace these words—and thin even to grotesqueness; thin with the intensity of their expression of firmness—of immovable resolution—of stern contempt of human torture. I saw that the decrees of what to me was Fate were still issuing from those lips. I saw them writhe with a deadly locution. I saw them fashion the syllables of my name; and I shuddered because no sound succeeded. I saw, too, for a few moments of delirious horror, the soft and nearly imperceptible waving of the sable draperies which enwrapped the walls of the apartment. And then my vision fell upon the seven tall candles upon the table. At first they wore the aspect of charity, and seemed white slender angels who would save me; but then, all at once, there came a most deadly nausea......

Words: 6143 - Pages: 25

Shale Gas

...Impact of Shale Gas Production on the Market Fundamentals and Energy Security of  Certain Countries       ICCG Think Tank Map: a worldwide observatory on climate think tanks IMPACT OF SHALE GAS PRODUCTION  ON THE MARKET FUNDAMENTALS   AND ENERGY SECURITY OF CERTAIN  COUNTRIES  Ekaterina Zelenovskaya, ICCG 1 Impact of Shale Gas Production on the Market Fundamentals and Energy Security of  Certain Countries       Impact of Shale Gas Production on the Market Fundamentals and Energy Security of Certain Countries Ekaterina Zelenovskaya, ICCG Abstract The world’s unconventional gas base such as tight gas, coalbed methane (CBM) and shale gas are estimated to be as abundant as conventional gas resources. The recent start of shale gas production in the North America has significantly influenced major regional gas markets around the world. This article intends to examine the impact of shale gas production to the situation with the energy markets and energy security of particular countries, such as United States and countries of Continental Europe. 2 Overview of Shale Gas Production Activities and their Impact on Regional Energy Security    Shale Gas and Energy Security Energy production and use have various environmental implications since energy represents about 1 65% of global anthropogenic greenhouse-gas emissions. The general belief/opinion is that fossil fuels will remain the dominant source of primary energy in the following decades. However,......

Words: 2024 - Pages: 9

Hyrdro Fracking in Marcella Shale

...Hydrofracking in Marcellus shale: The Consequences of America’s Gas Rush Introduction Demand for fossil fuels in America has led to a flurry of unorthodox methods for the extraction of natural gas. Fracking or hydrofracking in the U.S.A has proven to be an efficient way of extracting natural gas from permeable rock. A new large scale hydrofracking operation has been proposed in the eastern states of Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York. This method of extraction is highly controversial, and is thought to have severe environmental and potential health consequences. This essay will provide further insight into the practice of Fracking in an area of shale known as Marcellus shale, and help to expose the environmental and human implications. What is Hydrofracking? Hydraulic Fracturing is an un-conventional process used in the extraction of gas in permeable rock (David 1973). A horizontal well is drilled into permeable rock such as shale and is injected with millions of gallons a high pressure fluid known as frac-fluid, this fluid is a mixture of sand, water, and an array of lubricating chemicals (Deutch 2011). The high pressure frac-fluid forces open fishers (cracks) within the rock which are kept open with sand granules; this allows pockets of gas to flow more easily from the shale (David 1973). Once the well is depleted all fluid that can be recycled is extracted, and the well is capped to stop any unused gas escaping (David 1973). The process of fracking is expensive and......

Words: 1854 - Pages: 8

Pit Bulls

...How did Pit bulls become the object of fear? Pit bulls are very playful, loyal and gentle animals. But they have a bad representation of be aggressive all the time. Others have containment issues were they can be great with you, but different when they are in a kennel or on a chain it makes them aggressive. Pit bulls are the object of fear because of the way they are shown in the media as well as the way that they are treated. I had the pleasure of having two pit bulls before we moved to North Dakota. When I was younger we purchased a pit-bull puppy that we raised. Roxie was her name and she later gave birth to 10 puppies that we either sold or gave to friends, except for one in which we kept. While growing up and playing with Roxie we would run around the yard. She loved to play in the snow and piles of leaves. She was a very sweet dog. She would come and lay on the floor by your feet and just lay there until you moved. My sisters, brother and myself treated her more like a child then a dog. When we were eating something, we gave her some even though our parents told us not to. She loved peanut butter. She was a very good guard dog, because she would let you know when someone would be in the yard or at the door. She would bark to let you know that someone was there, but she never attacked the person. My sister’s pit bull mini is really sweet as well she loves to come and jump on my bed when I am laying their watching television and she will just lay there...

Words: 2066 - Pages: 9

Fracking and the Eagle Ford Shale

...2013 NPRE 101 – INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY SOURCES END OF TERM PAPER PROF. RUZIC HYDRAULIC FRACTURING AND THE EAGLE FORD SHALE Patricio Calles Almeida – UIN 651559726 Everyone knows that the urge to find an alternative to fossil fuels is one of the top priorities of technology researchers and scientists. We also know that the United States is becoming more and more dependable on foreign resources as the national ones are running low. However, fossil fuels are still the only cost-effective sources of them all. You could argue that hydroelectric and nuclear power are on the rise, but the first one does not produce large scale amounts of energy and the latter requires a huge initial investment with long waits until returns and profits; all the previous makes these sources not really convenient in developing countries, the ones that ironically need is the most. That’s why fossil fuel sources will continue to dominate the energy scene for the next decades, at least. In this context, I want to focus my paper on hydraulic fracturing, fracking. Actually, more specifically, the absolute focus will be to relate this modern method of oil and natural gas extraction with the Eagle Ford Shale, located in South Texas. Specifications and characteristics that make this shale so appealing for fracking will be a part of the following analysis. Overall, the shale is one that could be the biggest production center of oil and natural gas of the US and bring lots of economic benefits to......

Words: 3616 - Pages: 15

Shale Gas

...What is shale gas and why is it important? Shale gas refers to natural gas that is trapped within shale formations. Shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas. Over the past decade, the combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has allowed access to large volumes of shale gas that were previously uneconomical to produce. The production of natural gas from shale formations has rejuvenated the natural gas industry in the United States. Does the U.S. Have Abundant Shale Gas Resources? Of the natural gas consumed in the United States in 2011, about 95% was produced domestically; thus, the supply of natural gas is not as dependent on foreign producers as is the supply of crude oil, and the delivery system is less subject to interruption. The availability of large quantities of shale gas should enable the United States to consume a predominantly domestic supply of gas for many years and produce more natural gas than it consumes. An analysis in the Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (released June 2012) indicates that the uncertainty in the size and economics of the domestic shale gas resources could have a considerable impact on future domestic natural gas production and that 2035 shale gas production could be between 9.7 trillion cubic feet and 20.5 trillion cubic feet. U.S. total natural gas production is projected to range between 26.1 trillion cubic feet and 34.1 trillion cubic feet.  Where is Shale Gas Found? ...

Words: 754 - Pages: 4

Shale Gas Revolution

...techniques are opening up a potentially huge array of unconventional sources, including tar sands, shale gas and ultra-deep water. While in the long term, the use of renewable sources of energy like harnessing wind and solar energy is inevitable, at present the costs associated are high and the efficiency of the power generated is low to make it viable for developing countries like India and China from adopting them on a large scale. In the short term, of all the unconventional sources of energy discovered, shale gas has been touted as the immediate answer of solving the energy crisis. The use of shale gas has also had a positive response from environmentalists as it is well known that natural gas produces far lesser emissions than traditional sources of energy like coal or oil. Shale gas Shale gas is natural gas that is found trapped within shale formations. Shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas. Since they tend to overlie conventional oil and gas reservoirs, the extensive exploration for conventional oil and gas resources can generate enough leads to locate potential shale plays. Shale gas is one of a number of unconventional sources of natural gas. China is estimated to have the largest shale gas reserves in the world as of 2013.In the United States, a decade worth of shale production has been discovered in the Barnett shale play in Texas. It has been postulated that there may be a 100-year supply......

Words: 1310 - Pages: 6

Shale Gas and India

...Shale Gas and India Introduction Shale gas has impacted the scenario of Energy market world over. US being the first one to explore and produce shale gas with its indigenous technology, is projected to emerge as an exporter of LNG over the next few years from being a major importer few years back. China has the largest reserves of shale gas followed by Argentina and US, while India has sufficient reserves as well; around 100 trillion cubic feet. Indian Scenario GOI has appointed the public sector companies ONGC and OIL to further explore prospects of the six shale gas basins identified in India. With the shale gas policy to be cleared soon, ONGC has tied up with ConocoPhillips to explore and develop Cambay, Cauvery, Krishna-Godavari and Bengal basins, after the success of a pilot project in Damodar Basin. Also, OIL has hired Schlumberger to evaluate the potential of shale gas reserves in Rajasthan and Assam-Arakan basins. India at present is a net importer of natural gas with the demand supply gap increasing further. Shortage of gas is also aggravated by the lower production levels in KG-D6 block. This has resulted in the under utilization of gas-consuming industries, notably the power and fertilizer industry. Associated issues Shale gas being an unconventional source of natural gas requires unique technology of Hydro-fracking, a method of horizontal drilling using high pressure water along with chemicals. One of the key determinants for implementation of this......

Words: 507 - Pages: 3

Pit Bull

...breed label, the Pit Bull. Pit Bulls bad reputation is put across by media labeling them as dangerous dogs and telling our society that they are vicious and unpredictable and that they will turn on you. The media portrays this idea through stories of pit bulls attacking people, which grabs a large amount of attention because they are labeled as Americans most dangerous dog. Stories like “84-year-old women recovering after pit bull attack” or “3-year-old attacked by a pit bull in the Bronx” we hear a lot about and they are put all over the news but stories like “Horror as rescue dog kills and dismembers two-month-old baby while his father slept”, which happened to be a golden retriever attack, we don’t hear much about. Since the media tends to only report attacks done by pit bulls the breed has become horribly misrepresented and misunderstood. Pit bulls can be aggressive, but most animals are when they feel like they are threatened. These dogs are known for their strength, loyalty, obedience, and endurance and unfortunately the wrong people abuse that and use them for dog fighting as entertainment. Pit bulls have been in America for quite some time and used to be war heroes, nanny dogs and America’s sweetheart but in America today they are the most feared dog. The sad reality of this is that the pit bulls have not changed, the people have and their bad reputation is not their fault. Being the owner of a pit bull I would like others to know the truth about pit bulls, that they......

Words: 351 - Pages: 2

The Pit and the Pendulum.

...The Pit and the Pendulum. The pendulum by Edgar Allan Poe involves the story of the man who is facing death in every moment. It is a thriller and is very imposing. The story is told by an unnamed narrator who talks about the experiences in a pit in Spain. The story is about how he manages to escape death when it was right upon him. It shows the emotions that he goes through and what he feels when he is looking death in the eye and his joys when he manages to escape from the jaws of death. The story runs through the emotions felt by a person that was about to die and was perplexed about how he should die but still had the will to survive. He goes through many difficulties in his bid to survive. Many very fascinating ideas strike him and he manages to pull things that he would not have dreamed. For instance, when he puts a mark on the wall to make sure he is not going round and round when he could touch the walls. He had the presence of mind to know that he will go round and round till infinity if the pit was circular and he hence left a mark on the wall. He similarly decided to jump off the pit than being squashed to death. That as a choice he would have never had to make in any other circumstance. In this story, Poe shows an irony- an irony where a person becomes that what he hate the most. The captors of the narrator were the Spanish and in the time of the Spanish inquisition the church was against science and hence no scientific activities were tolerated. The main......

Words: 1231 - Pages: 5

The Pit and the Pendulum

...The Pit and The Pendulum is arguably one of Edgar Allan Poe's greatest works. The Pit and The Pendulum spins a web of insanity over the main character during the Spanish Inquisition. The setting of the story helps shroud it in the theme of fear, torture, and madness. The pit, i believe symbolizes humanity's fear of the unknown, it can also represent the gate to hell, seeing how this story is set during the Spanish Inquisition this theory is highly plausible. Also the psych of Poe himself can be used as an example of an effective horror tone and atmosphere. But this story isnt just horror is it? No this goes much deeper than that by addressing the malleability of the human mind. In the text it states that the narrator witnesses a trio of white candles turn into angels and then shift to his tormentors. What sets this story apart is that it instills a feeling of terror into the reader with its heavy emphasis on the senses of the narrator, unlike poes other works such as the Tell-Tale Heart and The Raven which rely on the supernatural element typical of horror stories. The pendulum which filleted anyone unlucky enough to be caught in it’s wake, symbolizes the fallibility of humans as a whole and the march of time till death. As the narrator describes it as swinging by every one second. This helps create an extremely tense atmosphere during the scene in which the narrator is tied down with the pendulum swinging by every one second, Poe masterfully executed this in a way that......

Words: 833 - Pages: 4

The Shale Gas Revolution in the U.S.

...The Shale Gas Revolution in the U.S. - Aspect of Domestic Market - Prepared for Microeconomics May 6, 2014 "The all-of-the-above energy strategy I announced a few years ago is working, and today, America is closer to energy independence than we’ve been in decades," Obama said during his fifth State of the Union speech on January 2014. In a fact sheet accompanying the speech, the White House called on Congress to establish "sustainable shale gas growth zones." As mentioned by the U.S. president Obama, “The Shale Gas Revolution” is hot topic in the energy industry recently. Previously, the U.S. has imported large amounts of natural gas from other countries, but now it is expected to be an exporter of natural gas because of shale gas production. (Reference: Annual Energy Outlook 2011, May, 2011) Exporting shale gas would bring economic benefits. Gross Domestic Product can be increased, employment on LNG supply chain would be increased, and there will be no import of LNG anymore. Nevertheless, there is some limitation which will not favor to domestic LNG market. For exporting the shale gas, there are many researches to determine the associated costs. The price U.S. LNG exporters can afford to charge can be separated into the following components. Price = Wellhead price + Pipeline + Liquefaction + Shipping + Regasification Based on the above formula, experts’ estimate that the minimum price the U.S. and afford to export LNG to Asia, mainly Japan and......

Words: 453 - Pages: 2


...SHALE GAS :AN UNCONVETIONAL GAS RESERVOIR SUNJAY,SUSHEEL KUMAR AND NIKHIL JAIN Geophysics ,Geology ,Mining Engg-IIT ,BHU ,Varansi 221005 ,India,, Summary With a view to energy security of the world, unconventional energy resources - coalbed methane (CBM) , Methane Gas Hydrate, shale gas, basin centred gas ,tight gas, oil shale and heavy oil- exploration and exploitation is pertinent task before geoscientist . Shale gas is natural gas from shale formations which acts as both the source and the reservoir for the natural gas. Each Shale gas reservoir has unique characteristics. Shale has low matrix permeability, so gas production in commercial quantities requires fractures to provide permeability. For a given matrix permeability and pressure, gas production are determined by the number and complexity of fractures created, their effective conductivity, and the ability to effectively reduce the pressure throughout the fracture network to initiate gas production. Understanding the relationship between fracture complexity, fracture conductivity, matrix permeability, and gas recovery is a fundamental challenge of shale-gas development. Shale gas reservoirs almost always have two different storage volumes (dual porosity) for hydrocarbons, the rock matrix and the natural fractures .Because of the plastic nature of shale formations, these natural fractures are generally closed due to the......

Words: 3175 - Pages: 13

Significance of Burgess Shale

...The Burgess Shale What is the geological significance of the Burgess Shale: • The Burgess Shale is famous for its fossils of soft-bodied organisms. It is exceptional to find complete animals preserved, especially ones that had only soft tissues and no mineralized structures. (Typically it is only the hard parts of organisms - shell or bone - that become fossils.) • When this happens palaeontologists can gain a vast amount of ecological and biological information about a particular time in Earth's history. The Burgess Shale is such a site, providing the best window on animal communities during the end of the Cambrian Explosion. When was it deposited: • The story of the Burgess Shale begins more than 500 million years ago. Shortly before the Burgess Shale animals lived, there was an evolutionary “Big-Bang” called the Cambrian Explosion. • These fossils are approximately 530 million years old, and represent an array of life-forms present during the early-middle years of the Cambrian period (545-495 million years ago). What kind of organisms were fossilised: Approximately 120 species are found in the Burgess Shale, including familiar forms as well as several species belonging to previously unknown phyla. Some of the fossilized species are members of groups (phylum) that still exist. These species can be categorized as members of the phyla Porifora (sponges), Annelida (segmented marine flatworms), Arthropoda (insects, crabs, and trilobites), and Echinodermata (sea...

Words: 526 - Pages: 3

Economic Analysis of Shale Gas

...Economic Analysis of Shale Gas an Industry Alternative By Lillian Ashford & Bridget M. Chow Professor Nelson Altamirano, Ph.D. National University ECO 607 Economics for Managerial Decision-Making December 11, 2011 Introduction Shale gas is natural gas that is trapped in shale formations. Shale particles are fine grained sedimentary rocks that are rich sources of petroleum and natural gas. In the past, it was not economically viable to produce shale gas; however, with technological advances and the forward thinking perceptions of reducing our ecological footprint, the process has become more economical due to horizontal drilling and fracturing. The natural gas industry in the United States has been revitalized as a result of the production of natural gas from shale formations. In 2009, shale gas represented approximately 14% of the United States total natural gas supply. The production of shale gas is expected to increase and make up approximately 60% of the (U.S.) total natural gas supply by 2035. The question to ponder is whether or not shale gas is a viable energy option for the United States to consider in reducing the energy dependence of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) while increasing fiscal responsibility and economic viability in both the short and long run analysis? Economic Analysis The shale gas industry has contributed to the economy in terms of jobs, economic......

Words: 1290 - Pages: 6

Santa Clarita Diet S01-S02 2160p Netflix WEBRip DD 5 1 x264x265-MIXED | Tajikistan | A Description of Computers - 1084 Words