Mr Been

In: Business and Management

Submitted By rirarira
Words 5011
Pages 21
Q1
A cell’s genetic information or genome or DNA, either a single DNA molecule in prokaryotes or multi DNA molecules in eukaryotes always consist of chromosomes. In humans, a typical cell has about 3 meters of DNA which has to be copied and then this copy has to be separated during cell division. This can be done just because the DNA molecule can be packed into chromosomes (chromo means coloured). Every species has certain number of chromosomes in each nucleus, for example humans have 46 chromosomes in their somatic cells and half of this number, 23 in their sex cells or gametes. So then each chromosome has a long chain of a DNA molecule which has hundreds or thousands of genes and these genes are specified for numerous inherited traits. Many proteins in DNA help to maintain the structure of chromosomes and control the genes actions.
This DNA-proteins complex forms a thin, long structure, called chromatin which coil and fold during cell division to make the chromosome much thicker and shorter. Each duplicated chromosomes contains two sister chromatid with identical copies of DNA molecule, attached at a narrow place called centromere.
Later in cell division process the sister chromatids of all the chromosomes are pulled apart and repackaged as complete chromosome sets in two new nuclei. Mitosis or the division of the nuclei is usually followed by cytokinesis or the division of cytoplasm.Where there was one cell, now there are two cells each equivalent of the parent cell. In the cell cycle, mitotic phase alternates with long interphase(cell growth). Interphase subdivides into 3 parts (G, S, and G2) and accounts for approximately 90% of the cell cycle and all the preparation for cell division including growth and chromosome copying take place in this phase. Chromosomes are duplicated only during S phase(S= Synthesis of DNA) so in other subphases mostly cell…...

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