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Chapter Goals
• • • • • • • • •

Explain IP multicast addressing. Learn the basics of Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP). Explain how multicast in Layer 2 switching works. Define multicast distribution trees. Learn how multicast forwarding works. Explain the basics of protocol-independent multicast (PIM). Define multiprotocol BGP. Learn how Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP) works. Explain reliable multicast: PGM.

Internet Protocol Multicast
Internet Protocol (IP) multicast is a bandwidth-conserving technology that reduces traffic by simultaneously delivering a single stream of information to thousands of corporate recipients and homes. Applications that take advantage of multicast include videoconferencing, corporate communications, distance learning, and distribution of software, stock quotes, and news. IP Multicast delivers source traffic to multiple receivers without adding any additional burden on the source or the receivers while using the least network bandwidth of any competing technology. Multicast packets are replicated in the network by Cisco routers enabled with Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) and other supporting multicast protocols resulting in the most efficient delivery of data to multiple receivers possible. All alternatives require the source to send more than one copy of the data. Some even require the source to send an individual copy to each receiver. If there are thousands of receivers, even low-bandwidth applications benefit from using Cisco IP Multicast. High-bandwidth applications, such as MPEG video, may require a large portion of the available network bandwidth for a single stream. In these applications, the only way to send to more than one receiver simultaneously is by using IP Multicast. Figure 43-1 demonstrates how data from one source is delivered to several interested…...

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Ip Addresses Classes and Special-Use Ip Address Space

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4g Wireless Networks

...Broadcast Multicast Service (eMBMS). These (eMBMS) services are now a multicast standard for 4G LTE precisely because it allows one-to-many distribution of video content. Prices are decreasing by having more than one carrier offer the (eMBMS) as the foundation of their service plan. Data plans have become more competitive in pricing and the desire to be the order winner is causing carrier to make improvements to their systems daily. The race to increase coverage areas is motivating the competition along and spreading the benefits to each new market it reaches.  Mae Kowalke, noted the following in her article comparing cost reduction as a benefit to the end users, written in February 2012 : Initial deployments of eMBMS, a standard supported by 3GPP R9, are slated to begin this year (2012). As the article highlights, eMBMS can be used to expand the capabilities of LTE networks by using the same frequency layer for multicast, broadcast and unicast. This goes to the heart as to how and why operators can not only save money and but also provide an improved customer experience because of better reception and throughput. She further noted that Vale and Viswanathan involve a somewhat complex interplay of network elements: * Broadcast/Multicast Service Center (BM-SC) – schedules and manages MBMS services * Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service Single Frequency Network (MBSFN) Area – group of cells that coordinates MBSFN transmission * Multimedia Broadcast Multicast......

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Multicast Capacity in Manet with Infrastructure Support

...1 Multicast Capacity in MANET with Infrastructure Support Zhenzhi Qian, Xiaohua Tian, Xi Chen, Wentao Huang and Xinbing Wang Department of Electronic Engineering Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China Email: {199012315171, xtian, qfbzcx, yelohuang, xwang8} ! Abstract—We study the multicast capacity under a network model featuring both node’s mobility and infrastructure support. Combinations between mobility and infrastructure, as well as multicast transmission and infrastructure, have already been showed effective ways to increase it. In this work, we jointly consider the impact of the above three factors on network capacity. We assume that m static base stations and n mobile users are placed in an ad hoc network. A general mobility model is adopted, such that each user moves within a bounded distance from its home-point with an arbitrary pattern. In addition, each mobile node serves as a source of multicast transmission, which results in a total number of n multicast transmissions. We focus on the situations in which base stations actually benefit the capacity improvement, and find that multicast capacity in a mobile hybrid network falls into several regimes. For each regime, reachable upper and lower bounds are derived. Our work contains theoretical analysis of multicast capacity in hybrid networks and provides guidelines for the design of real hybrid system combing cellular and ad hoc networks. 1 Index Terms—Wireless ad hoc network; multicast capacity;......

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Ipv6 Multicast Address vs Ipv4 Broadcast

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Light Tree

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Ipv6 Address Type

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...NT2640 Unit 8 – Assignment 1 – IPv6 Address Type – Multicast One of the most significant modifications in the general addressing model in IPv6 was a change to the basic types of addresses and how they were used. For example, the Broadcast addressing type has been eliminated in IPv6. Instead, support for multicast addressing has been expanded and made a required part of the protocol, and a new type of addressing called Anycast has been implemented. In IPv6, multicasting is used to allow a single device to send a datagram to a group of recipients, where IPv4 supported multicast addressing using the Class D address block in the “classful” addressing scheme. In IPv6, the well-known multicast addresses for the “All Nodes” (FF0x:0:0:0:0:0:1) and “All Routers” (FF0x:0:0:0:0:0:2) enable the equivalent function of what broadcast used to perform in IPv4. To send a message, either an “All Nodes” or “All Routers” multicast address is used along with the scope value to determine the scope (Node-Local, Link-Local or Site-Local) where messages are to be sent. Apart from the regular multicast address, each unicast address has a special multicast address called its solicited-node address. These solicited-node addresses are used by the IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (ND) Protocol to provide more efficient address resolution than the ARP method used in IPv4. When a host wants to get the layer two address of a datagram destination it sends a Neighbor Solicitation ICMPv6 message containing......

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Information Technology

...A multicast address is a logical identifier for a group of hosts in a computer network, that are available to process datagrams or frames intended to be multicast for a designated network service. Multicast addressing can be used in the Link Layer (Layer 2 in the OSI model), such as Ethernet multicast, and at the Internet Layer (Layer 3 for OSI) for Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) or Version 6 (IPv6) multicast. The Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) is a protocol in the Internet protocol suite used with IPv6. It operates in the link layer of the Internet model and is responsible for address auto-configuration of nodes, discovery of other nodes on the link, determining the link layer addresses of other nodes, duplicate address detection, finding available routers and Domain Name System (DNS) servers, address prefix discovery, and maintaining reachability information about the paths to other active neighbor nodes. The protocol defines five different ICMPv6 packet types to perform functions for IPv6 similar to the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) and Internet Control Message Protocol(ICMP) Router Discovery and Router Redirect protocols for IPv4. However, it provides many improvements over its IPv4 counterparts. For example, it includes Neighbor Unreachability Detection (NUD), thus improving robustness of packet delivery in the presence of failing routers or links, or mobile nodes. All nodes addresses Host Extensions for IP Multicasting specifies the......

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Internet Protocol Ipv4

...conservative extension of IPv4. Most transport and application-layer protocols need little or no change to operate over IPv6. Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) was originally developed for IPv6, but found widespread deployment first in IPv4, for which it was re-engineered. IPsec was a mandatory specification of the base IPv6 protocol suite, but has since been made optional (Wikipedia, 2013). Multicasting is the transmission of a packet to multiple destinations in a single send operation, it is part of the base specification in IPv6. In IPv4 this is an optional although commonly implemented feature. IPv6 multicast addressing shares common features and protocols with IPv4 multicast, but also provides changes and improvements by eliminating the need for certain protocols. IPv6 also provides for new multicast implementations, including embedding rendezvous point addresses in an IPv6 multicast group address, which simplifies the deployment of inter-domain solutions (Network Working Group, 2013). In IPv6, the packet header and the process of packet forwarding have been simplified. Although IPv6 packet headers are at least twice the size of IPv4 packet headers, packet processing by routers is generally more efficient, thereby extending the end-to-end principle of Internet design. Unlike mobile IPv4, mobile IPv6 avoids triangular routing and is therefore as efficient as native IPv6. IPv6 routers may also allow entire subnets to move to a new router connection point without......

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Ipv6 Address Type Multicast

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Ccnp Bsci 642 901

...The Evolving Network Model EIGRP OSPF IS-IS Optimizing Routing CCNP BSCI Quick Reference Sheets Exam 642-901 BGP IP Multicast IPv6 Introduction Brent Stewart Denise Donohue [2] ABOUT THE AUTHORS CCNP BSCI Quick Reference Sheets About the Authors Brent Stewart, CCNP, CCDP, MCSE, Certified Cisco Systems Instructor, is a network administrator for CommScope. He participated in the development of BSCI, and has seperately developed training material for ICND, BSCI, BCMSN, BCRAN, and CIT. Brent lives in Hickory, NC, with his wife, Karen and children, Benjamin, Kaitlyn, Madelyn, and William. Denise Donohue, CCIE No. 9566, is a Design Engineer with AT&T. She is responsible for designing and implementing data and VoIP networks for SBC and AT&T customers. Prior to that, she was a Cisco instructor and course director for Global Knowledge. Her CCIE is in Routing and Switching. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by copyright. Please see page 73 for more details. [3] ICONS USED IN THIS BOOK CCNP BSCI Quick Reference Sheets Icons Used in This Book Si Router 7507 Router Multilayer Switch with Text Multilayer Switch Communication Server Switch I DC Internal Firewall IDS Web Browser Database App Server © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by copyright. Please see page 73 for more details. [4] CHAPTER 1 CCNP...

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Sky X Technology

...links of up to 10 Mbps while the SS45 provides Sky X enhancement for links of up to 45 Mbps Sky X Multicast Fan-Out Computer networking traditionally relies on unicast data transfers which establish point-to-point connections between devices. In situations where the same data is transferred to multiple users, the server must send a copy of the file to each recipient independently. This process is both time consuming and wastes much of the bandwidth resources. In contrast, multicast technology makes it possible for multiple recipients to receive a single data stream. This can be an especially powerful tool for satellite networks or similar architectures where the multicast transfer can take advantage of an underlying link layer broadcast media. Unfortunately, the only multicast capability built into the Internet Protocol is a UDP-based, unreliable, best-effort service that is only appropriate for real-time streaming applications such as event broadcasting. Because UDP-based IP multicast does not include any mechanisms for detection and retransmission of lost or corrupted data and does not resequence any packets that arrive out of order, IP multicast is not suitable for file downloads and other data transfer applications.  Sky X Multicast Fan-Out offers a simple and convenient solution for reliable multicast over wide area networks. By taking advantage of reliable multicast functionality built directly into XTP, the open-standard transport-layer protocol used by the Sky X......

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