Free Essay


In: Science

Submitted By Nnikkijoy
Words 5281
Pages 22
Reseach Paper

Circum-Pacific Belt
Mediternian Belt

Group 3:
Rena Mae Noserale
Karen Joy Umadhay
Loreen Sultan

Circum-Pacific Belt of Fire

The Ring of Fire is an area where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean. In a 40,000 km (25,000 mi) horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts and/or plate movements. It has 452 volcanoes and is home to over 75% of the world's active and dormant volcanoes. It is sometimes called the circum-Pacific belt or the circum-Pacific seismic belt.

About 90% of the world's earthquakes and 81% of the world's largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire. The next most seismically active region (5–6% of earthquakes and 17% of the world's largest earthquakes) is the Alpide belt, which extends from Java to Sumatra through theHimalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is the third most prominent earthquake belt.

The Ring of Fire is a direct result of plate tectonics and the movement and collisions of lithospheric plates. The eastern section of the ring is the result of the Nazca Plate and the Cocos Plate being subducted beneath the westward moving South American Plate. The Cocos Plate is being subducted beneath the Caribbean Plate, in Central America. A portion of the Pacific Plate along with the small Juan de Fuca Plate are being subducted beneath the North American Plate. Along the northern portion, the northwestward-moving Pacific plate is being subducted beneath the Aleutian Islandsarc. Farther west, the Pacific plate is being subducted along the Kamchatka Peninsula arcs on south past Japan. The southern portion is more complex, with a number of smaller tectonic plates in collision with the Pacific plate from the Mariana Islands, the Philippines, Bougainville, Tonga, andNew Zealand; this portion excludes Australia, since it lies in the center of its tectonic plate. Indonesia lies between the Ring of Fire along the northeastern islands adjacent to and including New Guinea and the Alpide belt along the south and west from Sumatra, Java, Bali, Flores, and Timor. The famous and very active San Andreas Fault zone of California is a transform fault which offsets a portion of the East Pacific Rise under southwestern United States and Mexico. The motion of the fault generates numerous small earthquakes, at multiple times a day, most of which are too small to be felt.[7][8] The active Queen Charlotte Fault on the west coast of the Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada, has generated three largeearthquakes during the 20th century: a magnitude 7 event in 1929; a magnitude 8.1 in 1949 (Canada's largest recorded earthquake); and a magnitude 7.4 in 1970.



Earthquake activity in Chile is related to subduction of the Nazca Plate to the east. Chile notably holds the record for the largest earthquake ever recorded, the 1960 Valdivia earthquake.Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above Villarrica Lake and the town of Villarrica. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene, >0.9 million years ago.

A 2-km-wide postglacial caldera is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic-to-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera. About 25 scoria cones dot Villarica's flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows have been produced during the Holocene from this dominantly basaltic volcano, but historical eruptions have consisted of largely mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion.Lahars from the glacier-covered volcanos have damaged towns on its flanks.

Chile has experienced numerous volcanic eruptions from 60 volcanoes, including Llaima Volcano and the Chaitén Volcano. More recently, an 8.8-magnitude earthquake struck central Chile on February 27, 2010, the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcano erupted in 2011 and an 8.2-magnitude earthquake struck northern Chile on April 1, 2014. The mainshock was preceded by a number of moderate to large shocks and was followed by a large number of moderate to very large aftershocks, including a M7.6 event on 3 April.


The country of Bolivia hosts numerous active and extinct volcanoes across its territory. The active volcanoes are located in western Bolivia where they make up the Cordillera Occidental, the western limit of the Altiplano plateau. Many of the active volcanoes are international mountains shared with Chile. All Cenozoic volcanoes of Bolivia are part of the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) of the Andean Volcanic Belt that results due to processes involved in the subduction of the Nazca Plate under the South American Plate. The Central Volcanic Zone is a major upper Cenozoicvolcanic province.[11] Apart from Andean volcanoes, the geology of Bolivia host the remants of ancient volcanoes around the Precambrian Guaporé Shield in the eastern part of the country.


Costa Rica

A powerful, magnitude-7.6 earthquake shook Costa Rica and a wide swath of Central America at 8:42 a.m. (10:42 a.m. EDT; 1442 GMT) on 09/05/2012.



Volcanoes of Mexico are related to subduction of the Cocos and Rivera plates to the east, subduction which has produced large explosive eruptions. Most active volcanoes in Mexico occur in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, which extends 900 kilometres (559 mi) from west to east across central-southern Mexico. A few other active volcanoes in northern Mexico are related to extensional tectonics of the Basin and Range Province, which splits the Baja California peninsula from the mainland.[12] Popocatépetl, lying in the eastern half of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, is the second highest peak in Mexico after the Pico de Orizaba. It is one of the most active volcanoes in Mexico, having had more than 20 major eruptions since the arrival of the Spanish in 1519. The 1982 eruption of El Chichón, which killed about 2,000 people who lived near the volcano, created a 1 kilometre (1 mi) widecaldera that filled with an acidic crater lake. Prior to 2000, this relatively unknown volcano was heavily forested and of no greater height than adjacent non-volcanic peaks.

United States

In the western United States lies the Cascade Volcanic Arc. It includes nearly 20 major volcanoes, among a total of over 4,000 separate volcanic vents including numerous stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, lava domes, and cinder cones, along with a few isolated examples of rarer volcanic forms such as tuyas. Volcanism in the arc began about 37 million years ago, however, most of the present-day Cascade volcanoes are less than 2,000,000 years old, and the highest peaks are less than 100,000 years old. The arc formed by the subduction of the Gorda and Juan de Fuca plates at the Cascadia subduction zone. This is a 680 mi (1,090 km) long fault, running 50 mi (80 km) off the west-coast of the Pacific Northwest from northern California toVancouver Island, British Columbia. The plates move at a relative rate of over 0.4 inches (10 mm) per year at a somewhat oblique angle to thesubduction zone.

Because of the very large fault area, the Cascadia subduction zone can produce very large earthquakes, magnitude 9.0 or greater, if rupture occurred over its whole area. When the "locked" zone stores energy for an earthquake, the "transition" zone, although somewhat plastic, can rupture. Thermal and deformation studies indicate that the locked zone is fully locked for 60 kilometers (about 40 miles) down-dip from the deformation front. Further down-dip, there is a transition from fully locked to aseismic sliding.

Unlike most subduction zones worldwide, there is no oceanic trench present along the continental margin inCascadia. Instead, terranes and the accretionary wedge have been uplifted to form a series of coast ranges and exotic mountains. A high rate of sedimentation from the outflow of the three major rivers (Fraser River,Columbia River, and Klamath River) which cross the Cascade Range contributes to further obscuring the presence of a trench. However, in common with most other subduction zones, the outer margin is slowly being compressed, similar to a giant spring. When the stored energy is suddenly released by slippage across the fault at irregular intervals, the Cascadia subduction zone can create very large earthquakes such as themagnitude 9 Cascadia earthquake of 1700. Geological evidence indicates that great earthquakes may have occurred at least seven times in the last 3,500 years, suggesting a return time of 400 to 600 years. There is also evidence of accompanying tsunamis with every earthquake, as the prime reason they know of these earthquakes is through "scars" the tsunami left on the coast, and through Japanese records (tsunami waves can travel across the Pacific).

The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was the most significant to occur in the contiguous 48 U.S. states in recorded history (VEI = 5, 0.3 cu mi, 1.2 km3 of material erupted), exceeding the destructive power and volume of material released by the 1915 eruption of California's Lassen Peak. The eruption was preceded by a two-month series of earthquakes and steam-venting episodes caused by an injection of magma at shallow depth below the mountain that created a huge bulge and a fracture system on Mount St. Helens' north slope. An earthquake at 8:32 a.m. on May 18, 1980, caused the entire weakened north face to slide away, suddenly exposing the partly molten, gas- and steam-rich rock in the volcano to lower pressure. The rock responded by exploding into a very hot mix of pulverized lava and older rock that sped toward Spirit Lake so fast that it quickly passed the avalanching north face.

Alaska is known for its seismic and volcanic activity, holding the record for the second largest earthquake in the world, the Good Friday Earthquake, and having more than 50 volcanoes which have erupted since about 1760.[13] Volcanoes can be found not only in the mainland but also in the Aleutian Islands.

The most recent activity in the American portion of the Ring of Fire occurred in early 2009 when Mount Redoubt in Alaska became active and finally erupted late in the evening of March 22. The eruption ended in May 2009.


British Columbia and Yukon are home to a vast region of volcanoes and volcanic activity in the Pacific Ring of Fire.[14] Several mountains that many British Columbians look at every day are dormant volcanoes. Most of them erupted during the Pleistocene and Holocene. Although none of Canada's volcanoes are currently erupting, several volcanoes, volcanic fields and volcanic centers are considered potentially active.[15] There are hot springs at some volcanoes, while 10 volcanoes in British Columbia appear related to seismic activity since 1975, including: the Silverthrone Caldera, Mount Meager, Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Cayley, Castle Rock, The Volcano, Mount Edziza, Hoodoo Mountain, Crow Lagoon and Nazko Cone.[16] The volcanoes are grouped into five volcanic belts with different tectonic settings.

The Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province (sometimes known as the Stikine Volcanic Belt) is the most active volcanic region in Canada. It formed due to extensional cracking, faulting and rifting of the North American Plate, as the Pacific Plate grinds and slides past the Queen Charlotte Fault, unlike subduction that produces the volcanoes in Japan, Philippines and Indonesia. The region has Canada's largest volcanoes,[14] much larger than the minor stratovolcanoes found in the Canadian portion of the Cascade Volcanic Arc.[14] Several eruptions are known to have occurred within the last 400 years. Mount Edziza is a huge volcanic complex that erupted several times in the past several thousand years and has formed several cinder conesand lava flows. The complex comprises the Mount Edziza Plateau, a large volcanic plateau (65 kilometers long and 20 kilometers wide) made of predominantly basaltic lava flows with four large stratovolcanoes built on top of the plateau. The associated lava domes and satellite cones were constructed over the past 7.5 million years during five magmatic cycles beginning with eruption of alkali basalts and ending with felsic and basaltic eruptions as late as 1,340 years ago. The blocky lava flows still maintain their original forms. Hoodoo Mountain is a tuya in northwestern British Columbia, which has had several periods of subglacial eruptions. The oldest eruptions occurred about 100,000 years ago and the most recent about 7000 years ago. Hoodoo Mountain is also considered active and could erupt in the future. The nearby Tseax Cone and The Volcano produced some of Canada's youngest lava flows, that are about 150 years old.

Canada's worst known geophysical disaster came from the Tseax Cone during the 18th century at the southernmost end of the volcanic belt. The eruption produced a 22.5 km long lava flow, destroying the Nisga'a villages and the death of at least 2000 Nisga'a people by volcanic gases and poisonous smoke. The Nass River valley was inundated by the lava flows and contains abundant tree molds and lava tubes. The event happened at the same time with the arrival of the first European explorers to penetrate the uncharted coastal waters of northern British Columbia. Today, the basaltic lava deposits are a draw to tourists and are part of the Nisga'a Memorial Lava Beds Provincial Park.

The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt in southwestern British Columbia is the northern extension of the Cascade Volcanic Arc in the United States (which includesMount Baker and Mount St. Helens) and contains the most explosive young volcanoes in Canada.[17] It formed as a result of subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate (a remnant of the much larger Farallon Plate) under the North American Plate along the Cascadia subduction zone.[17] The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt includes the Bridge River Cones, Mount Cayley, Mount Fee, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Price, Mount Meager, the Squamish Volcanic Field and much more smaller volcanoes. The eruption styles in the belt range from effusive to explosive, with compositions from basalt to rhyolite. Morphologically, centers include calderas, cinder cones, stratovolcanoes and small isolated lava masses. Due to repeated continental and alpine glaciations, many of the volcanic deposits in the belt reflect complex interactions between magma composition, topography, and changing ice configurations. The most recent major catastrophic eruption in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt was the 2350 BP eruption of Mount Meager. It was similar the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens,[17] sending an ash column approximately 20 km high into the stratosphere.

The Chilcotin Group is a north-south range of volcanoes in southern British Columbia running parallel to the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt. The majority of the eruptions in this belt happened either 6–10 million years ago (Miocene) or 2–3 million years ago (Pliocene), although there have been some slightly more recent eruptions (in the Pleistocene).[19] It is thought to have formed as a result of back-arc extension behind the Cascadia subduction zone.[19] Volcanoes in this belt include Mount Noel, the Clisbako Caldera Complex, Lightning Peak, Black Dome Mountain and many lava flows.

The Anahim Volcanic Belt is a line of volcanoes stretching from just north of Vancouver Island to near Quesnel, British Columbia, Canada. These volcanoes were formed 8 to 1 million years ago, and the Nazko Cone last erupted only 7,200 years ago.[20] The volcanoes generally get younger as one moves from the coast to the interior. These volcanoes are thought to have formed as a result of the North American Plate sliding westward over a small hotspot, called the Anahim hotspot.[20] The hotspot is considered similar to the one feeding the Hawaiian Islands.[20] The belt is defined by three large shield volcanoes (Rainbow, Ilgachuz and the Itcha Ranges) and 37 Quaternary basalt centers.

Eruptions of basaltic to rhyolitic volcanoes and hypabyssal rocks of the Alert Bay Volcanic Belt in northern Vancouver Island are probably linked with the subducted margin flanked by the Explorer and Juan de Fuca plates at the Cascadia subduction zone. It appears to have been active during thePliocene and Pleistocene time. However, no Holocene eruptions are known, and volcanic activity in the belt has likely ceased.


The Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East is one of the most various and active volcanic areas in the world,[21] with an area of 472,300 km². It lies between the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Okhotsk Sea to the west. Immediately offshore along the Pacific coast of the peninsula runs the 10,500 meter deep Kuril-Kamchatka Trench. This is where rapid subduction of the Pacific Plate fuels the intense volcanism. Almost all types of volcanic activity are present, from stratovolcanoes and shield volcanoes to Hawaiian-style fissure eruptions.[21]

There are over 30 active volcanoes and hundreds of dormant and extinct volcanoes in two major volcanic belts. The most recent activity takes place in the eastern belt,[21] starting in the north at the Shiveluch volcanic complex, which lies at the junction of the Aleutian and Kamchatka volcanic arcs. Just to the south is the famous Klyuchi volcanic group, comprising the twin volcanic cones of Kliuchevskoi and Kamen, the huge volcanic complexes ofTolbachik and Ushkovsky, and a number of other large stratovolcanoes. The only active volcano in the central belt is found west of here, the huge remote Ichinsky. Farther south, the eastern belt continues to the southern slope of Kamchatka, topped by loads of stratovolcanoes.


Approximately ten percent of the world's active volcanoes are found in Japan, which lies in a zone of extreme crustal instability. They are formed by subduction of the Pacific Plate and thePhilippine Sea Plate. As many as 1,500 earthquakes are recorded yearly, and magnitudes of four to six on the Richter scale are not uncommon. Minor tremors occur almost daily in one part of the country or another, causing some slight shaking of buildings. Major earthquakes occur infrequently; the most famous in the twentieth century were: the Great Kantō earthquake of 1923, in which 130,000 people died; and the Great Hanshin earthquake of 17 January 1995, in which 6,434 people died. On March 11, 2011 a magnitude 9.0 Earthquake hit Japan, the country's biggest ever and the fifth largest on record, according to US Geological Survey data.[22] Undersea earthquakes also expose the Japanese coastline to danger from tsunamis.

Mount Bandai, one of Japan's most noted volcanoes, rises above the north shore of Lake Inawashiro. Mount Bandai is formed of several overlapping stratovolcanoes, the largest of which is O-Bandai forming a complex volcano. O-Bandai volcano was constructed within a horseshoe-shaped calderathat formed about 40,000 years when an earlier volcano collapsed, forming the Okinajima debris avalanche, which traveled to the southwest and was accompanied by a plinian eruption. Four major phreatic eruptions have occurred during the past 5,000 years, two of them in historical time, in 806 and 1888. Seen from the south, Bandai presents a conical profile, but much of the north side of the volcano is missing as a result of the collapse of Ko-Bandai volcano during the 1888 eruption, in which a debris avalanche buried several villages and formed several large lakes.

Nearly a century ago, the north flank of Mount Bandai collapsed during an eruption quite similar to the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. After a week of seismic activity, a large earthquake on July 15, 1888, was followed by a tremendous noise and a large explosion. Eyewitnesses heard about 15 to 20 additional explosions and observed that the last one was projected almost horizontally to the north.

Mount Fuji is Japan's highest and most noted volcano. The modern postglacial stratovolcano is constructed above a group of overlapping volcanoes, remnants of which form irregularities on Fuji's profile. Growth of the younger Mount Fuji began with a period of voluminous lava flows from 11,000 to 8,000 years ago, accounting for four-fifths of the volume of the younger Mount Fuji. Minor explosive eruptions dominated activity from 8,000 to 4,500 years ago, with another period of major lava flows occurring from 4,500 to 3,000 years ago. Subsequently, intermittent major explosive eruptions occurred, with subordinate lava flows and small pyroclastic flows. Summit eruptions dominated from 3,000 to 2,000 years ago, after which flank vents were active. The extensive basaltic lava flows from the summit and some of the more than 100 flank cones and vents blocked drainages against the Tertiary Misaka Mountains on the north side of the volcano, forming the Fuji Five Lakes. The last eruption of this dominantly basaltic volcano in 1707 ejected andesitic pumice and formed a large new crateron the east flank. Scientists are saying that there may be some minor volcanic activity in the next few years.


The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo is the world's second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century. Successful predictions of the onset of the climactic eruption led to the evacuation of tens of thousands of people from the surrounding areas, saving many lives, but as the surrounding areas were severely damaged by pyroclastic flows, ash deposits, and later, lahars caused by rainwater remobilising earlier volcanic deposits, thousands of houses were destroyed.

Mayon Volcano is the Philippines' most active volcano. The volcano has steep upper slopes that average 35–40 degrees and is capped by a small summit crater. The historical eruptions of this basaltic-andesitic volcano dates back to 1616 and ranges from Strombolian to basaltic Plinian eruptions. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas.

Taal Volcano has had 33 recorded eruptions since 1572. A devastating eruption occurred in 1911, which claimed more than a thousand lives. The deposits of that eruption consist of a yellowish, fairly decomposed (non-juvenile) tephra with a high sulfur content. The most recent period of activity lasted from 1965 to 1977, and was characterized by the interaction of magma with the lake water, which produced violent phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions. Although the volcano has been dormant since 1977, it has shown signs of unrest since 1991, with strong seismic activity and ground fracturing events, as well as the formation of small mud geysers on parts of the island.

Kanlaon Volcano is the most active volcano in central Philippines and has erupted 25 times since 1866. Eruptions are typically phreatic explosions of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ashfalls near the volcano. On August 10, 1996, Kanlaon erupted without warning, killing British student Julian Green and Filipinos Noel Tragico and Neil Perez, who were among 24 mountainclimbers who were trapped near the summit.


The volcanoes in Indonesia are among the most active of the Pacific Ring of Fire. They are formed due to subduction zones of three main active tectonic plates namely the Eurasian Plate, Pacific Plate, and the Indo-Australian Plate.[23] Some of the volcanoes are notable for their eruptions, for instance, Krakatau for its global effects in 1883, Lake Toba for its supervolcanic eruption estimated to have occurred 74,000 BP, which was responsible for six years of volcanic winter, and Mount Tambora for the most violent eruption in recorded history in 1815. The eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815 caused widespread harvest failures in Northern Europe, the Northeastern United States, and eastern Canada in 1816, which was known as the Year Without a Summer.

The most active volcanoes are Kelud and Mount Merapi on Java island, which have been responsible for thousands of deaths in the region. Since AD 1000, Kelud has erupted more than 30 times, of which the largest eruption was at scale 5 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, while Merapi has erupted more than 80 times. The International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior has named Merapi as a Decade Volcano since 1995 because of its high volcanic activity.


New Zealand contains the world's strongest concentration of youthful rhyolitic volcanoes, and voluminous sheets blanket much of the North Island. The earliest historically-dated eruption was at Whakaari/White Islandin 1826,[24] followed in 1886, by the country's largest historical eruption at Mount Tarawera. Much of the region north of New Zealand's North Island is made up of seamounts and small islands, including 16 submarine volcanoes. In the last 1.6 million years, most of New Zealand's volcanism is from the Taupo Volcanic Zone.

Mount Ruapehu at the southern end of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, is one of the most active volcanoes.[25] It began erupting at least 250,000 years ago. In recorded history, major eruptions have been about 50 years apart,[25] in 1895, 1945 and 1995–1996. Minor eruptions are frequent, with at least 60 since 1945. Some of the minor eruptions in the 1970s generated small ash falls and lahars (mudflows) that damaged skifields.[26]Between major eruptions, a warm acidic crater lake forms, fed by melting snow. Major eruptions may completely expel the lake water. Where a major eruption has deposited a tephra dam across the lake's outlet, the dam may collapse after the lake has refilled and risen above the level of its normal outlet, the outrush of water causing a large lahar. The most notable lahar caused the Tangiwai disaster in December 1953, when 151 people aboard a Wellington to Auckland express train were killed after the lahar destroyed the Tangiwai rail bridge just moments before the train was due. In 2000, theERLAWS system was installed on the mountain to detect such a collapse and alert the relevant authorities.

The Auckland volcanic field on the North Island of New Zealand, has produced a diverse array of explosive craters, scoria cones, and lava flows. Currently dormant, the field is likely to erupt again with the next "hundreds to thousands of years", a very short timeframe in geologic terms.[27] The field contains at least 40 volcanoes, most recently active about 600 years ago at Rangitoto Island, erupting 2.3 cubic kilometers of lava.


The Pacific Ring of Fire is completed in the south by the continent of Antarctica, which includes many large volcanoes. The makeup and structure of the volcanoes in Antarctica change largely from the other places around the ring. In contrast, the Antarctic Plate is almost completely surrounded by extensional zones, with several mid-ocean ridges which encircle it, and there is only a small subduction zone at the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, reaching eastward to the remote South Sandwich Islands. The most well known volcano in Antarctica is Mount Erebus, which is also the world's southernmost active volcano. In many respects the geology of the Antarctic Peninsula is an extension of the Andes, hence the name sometimes used by geologists: "Antarctandes". At the opposite side of the continent, the volcanoes of Victoria Land may be seen as the 'other end' of the Antarctandes, thus completing the Pacific Ring of Fire and continuing up through the Balleny Islands to New Zealand.

The volcanoes of the Victoria Land area are the most well known in Antarctica, most likely because they are the most accessible. Much of Victoria Land is mountainous, developing the eastern section of the Transantarctic Mountains, and there are several scattered volcanoes including Mount Overlord and Mount Melbourne in the northern part. Farther south are two more well-known volcanoes, Mount Discovery and Mount Morning, which are on the coast across from Mount Erebus and Mount Terror on Ross Island. The volcanism in this area is caused by rifting along a number of rift zones increasing mainly north-south similar to the coast.

Marie Byrd Land contains the largest volcanic region in Antarctica, covering a length of almost 600 miles (970 km) along the Pacific coast. The volcanism is the result of rifting along the vast West Antarctic Rift, which extends from the base of the Antarctic Peninsula to the surrounding area of Ross Island, and the volcanoes are found along the northern edge of the rift. Protruding up through the ice are a large number of major shield volcanoes, including Mount Sidley, which is the highest volcano in Antarctica. Although a number of the volcanoes are relatively young and are potentially active (Mount Berlin, Mount Takahe, Mount Waesche, and Mount Siple), others such as Mount Andrus and Mount Hampton are over 10 million years old, yet maintain uneroded constructional forms. The desert-like surroundings of the Antarctic interior, along with a very thick and stable ice sheet which encloses and protects the bases of the volcanoes, which decreases the speed of erosion by an issue of perhaps a thousand relative to volcanoes in moist temperate or tropical climates.

Mediterranean – Himalayan Belt

The Alpide belt or the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt includes an array of mountain ranges which extends along the southern margin of Eurasia, stretching from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic. It includes the Alps, the Carpathians, the mountains of Anatolia and Iran, the Hindu Kush, and the mountains of Southeast Asia. After the Pacific Ring of Fire, it is the second most seismic region in the world, with 17% of the world's largest earthquakes.

The Alpide belt is being created by ongoing plate tectonics. The belt is the result of Mesozoic to Cenozoic to recent closure of the Tethys Ocean and process of collision between the northward-moving African, Arabian and Indian plateswith the Eurasian plate.



Cantabrian Mountains (Basque Mountains) are one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain. They stretch for over 300 km (180 miles) across northern Spain, from the western limit of the Pyrenees to the Galician Massif inGalicia, along the coast of the Cantabrian Sea. Their easternmost end meets the Sistema Ibérico. These mountains are a distinct physiographic province of the larger Alpine System physiographic division.

Pyrenees is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between France and Spain. It separates the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe, and extends for about 491 km (305 mi) from the Bay of Biscay(Cap Higuer) to the Mediterranean Sea (Cap de Creus).

For the most part, the main crest forms a massive divider between France and Spain, with the tiny country of Andorra sandwiched in between. The Crown of Aragon and the Kingdom of Navarre have historically extended on both sides of the mountain range, with small northern portions now in France and much larger southern parts now in Spain

Alps, Sudetes, Carpathians, Balkans, and Crimean Mountains in ;

Atlas Mountains in Northern Africa, Baetic System (Sierra Nevada and Balearic Islands), Apennine Mountains, Dinaric Alps (Hellenides) and Aegean Islands (Crete, Karpathos and Rhodos) in Southern Europe;

Pontic Mountains, Caucasus Mountains, Armenian Highland, Alborz, Kopet Dag, Hindu Kush, Pamir Mountains, Tian Shan, Kunlun Mountains, Hengduan Mountains, the Indochina (Annamite Range) and Malay Peninsula in Asia;

Cyprus (Troodos Mountains), Taurus Mountains, Zagros Mountains, Makran Highland, Sulaiman Mountains,Karakoram, Himalayas, Patkai, Chin Hills, Arakan Mountains, Andaman and Nicobar Islands in South Asia.

Indonesia lies between the Pacific Ring of Fire along the northeastern islands adjacent to and including New Guinea and the Alpide belt along the south and west from Sumatra, Java and theLesser Sunda Islands (Bali, Flores, and Timor). The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake just off the coast of Sumatra was located within the Alpide belt.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...Hotel Rwanda Video Questions: Please answer in COMPLETE SENTENCES ON A SEPARATE SHEET OF PAPER!!! 1) When the film opens what is the feeling between Hutu and Tutsi? Who is in the majority? What is the justification for hatred? 2) In the film you see a change in value system from money to items. Why do you think that is? Give an example when money is more valuable than items. Give an example of when items are more valuable than money. 3) Do you believe Paul is supporting the Tutsi genocide by buying products from one of the men of the Interhamway militia? Why or why not? Support your answer with facts from the movie 4) In the beginning of the film Paul makes a statement that “family is all that matters.” Explain how he evolves from thinking only of his family to saving more than 1200 people. What causes this change to occur? 5) Explain the Press man’s comment to Paul about people watching the genocide on TV. What do you think needs to happen to get people to change and get involved in events like Rwanda? Do you think people would stand by and watch today why or why not? 6) Is there a difference between act of genocide and just plain genocide? Explain your answer. Why is the international community so careful not to call this a genocide at first? 7) At the end of the film Paul locks the doors to the Hotel Michelin. Why do you think he does this? What do you think it symbolizes? 8) This film does a great job at......

Words: 324 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...(Guardian of Welfare and Independence, Youth Officer, Initiator and Motivator) President: RITCH M. BANATE Vice pres.: MADELINE ARBOLEDA Secretary: NIKKI MARRI S. SOCORRO Treasurer: MARJONEL M. BUCLATIN Auditor: ANGELICA E. SOLARES Buss. Manager: RALPH JASON F. JALJIS P.R.O: MICHAEL FERNANDO P. IBARRA VOTE STRAIGHT !! Godbless GWIYOMI (Guardian of Welfare and Independence, Youth Officer, Initiator and Motivator) President: RITCH M. BANATE Vice pres.: MADELINE ARBOLEDA Secretary: NIKKI MARRI S. SOCORRO Treasurer: MARJONEL M. BUCLATIN Auditor: ANGELICA E. SOLARES Buss. Manager: RALPH JASON F. JALJIS P.R.O: MICHAEL FERNANDO P. IBARRA VOTE STRAIGHT !! Godbless GWIYOMI (Guardian of Welfare and Independence, Youth Officer, Initiator and Motivator) President: RITCH M. BANATE Vice pres.: MADELINE ARBOLEDA Secretary: NIKKI MARRI S. SOCORRO Treasurer: MARJONEL M. BUCLATIN Auditor: ANGELICA E. SOLARES Buss. Manager: RALPH JASON F. JALJIS P.R.O: MICHAEL FERNANDO P. IBARRA VOTE STRAIGHT !! Godbless GWIYOMI (Guardian of Welfare and Independence, Youth Officer, Initiator and Motivator) President: RITCH M. BANATE Vice pres.: MADELINE ARBOLEDA Secretary: NIKKI MARRI S. SOCORRO Treasurer: MARJONEL M. BUCLATIN Auditor: ANGELICA E. SOLARES Buss. Manager: RALPH JASON F.......

Words: 288 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Christian World View

...April 12, 2012 CWV101-Crawford Family Television Review The situation comedy that highlights family values and functions for this Family Television Review is the show called The Parkers. The name of the family is The Parkers which is a family with a single mother and a daughter both attending college. Observations of the family lead me to the conclusion that their worldview is between a naturalism and secular worldview. While watching the show The Parkers I have observe that The Parkers live they life base off naturalism and secular because they are fulfilling their dreams in life regardless of what people might say or believe. On the following episode e the the mother Nikki Parkers truly believes her and the professor is a couple and he is cheating on her with some skinny women. The Nikki character is following the professor around and trying to find out what he is up too even though it is clear they are not a couple and will never be. The other character is Kimberly Parker she is clearly not the smartest character on the show but her personality makes up for it. She has this bubbly personality that is easy to get along with and she always has some silly or funny to say that make people take a double take. They both do things that make them feel good about themselves like going to college to farther themselves in life, they both like fashion and attention from men. The Parkers are there for each other regardless of what might happen and they do not let others......

Words: 604 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Chain Reaction Book Summary

...are Luis and Nikki. Luis has short brown hair and brown eyes and is Mexican. He is very smart, funny and has big dreams of becoming an astronaut but, inside he’s just as bad as his older brothers were. Nikki is a girl who never trusts boys. She thinks boy’s lie to get their own way and only want one thing, sex. Nikki also has brown hair and blue eyes and is Mexican. 7. Luis always got straight A’s and never got into fights but then he learns some horrible family secrets and starts going towards the wrong path. He starts dealing with drugs and being in dangerous gang situations. He’s stuck being in a gang but in the end Luis, Nikki and his brothers all help to bring the gang down. In the beginning of the book Nikki was in “love” with the wrong guy and he dumped her for the gang life. Nikki was left heartbroken and pregnant. She learns from the experience and vow’s to never trust a guy again but Luis comes around and she couldn’t resist. 8. My favorite character is Luis because I love his personality. He’s strong, confident and romantic. After being in dangerous situations he managed to get his life back in order. 9. The story takes place in Fairfield, Illinois. 10. My favorite part is in the second to last chapter when Luis, Carlos, and Alex are standing there wondering who shot Chuy and they find out that it was Nikki. This was my favorite part because it shows that Nikki would do anything to help Luis and because none of the boys were expecting Nikki to be......

Words: 631 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Data Base

...---------------+ 6 rows in set (0.00 sec) So we have the tables created and ready. Now we put in some data. Let's start with the 'names' table as it uses a unique AUTO_INCREMENT field which in turn is used in the other tables. Inserting data, one row at a time: mysql> INSERT INTO names (FirstName, LastName, BirthDate) VALUES ('Yamila','Diaz ','1974-10-13'); Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec) Inserting multiple rows at a time: mysql> INSERT INTO names (FirstName, LastName, BirthDate) VALUES ('Nikki','Taylor','1972-03-04'),('Tia','Carrera','1975-09-18'); Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.00 sec) Records: 2 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0 Let's see what the data looks like inside the table. We use the SELECT command for this. mysql> SELECT * from NAMES; +------------+-----------+----------+------------+ | contact_id | FirstName | LastName | BirthDate | +------------+-----------+----------+------------+ | 3 | Tia | Carrera | 1975-09-18 | | 2 | Nikki | Taylor | 1972-03-04 | | 1 | Yamila | Diaz | 1974-10-13 | +------------+-----------+----------+------------+ 3 rows in set (0.06 sec) Try another handy command called 'DESCRIBE'. mysql> DESCRIBE names; +------------+-------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+---------------------------------+ | Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra | Privileges | +------------+-------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+---------------------------------+ | contact_id |......

Words: 6659 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay


...05-05-2013 19:50 Heat Wave - Richard Castle file:///C:/Users/zainab/Downloads/Richard.Castle_Nikki.Heat.01_Hea... Contents One It was always the same for her when she arrived… Two Nikki Heat’s footsteps echoed back at her off the concrete… Three Heat and Rook trailed two steps behind Noah Paxton as… Four Nikki didn’t go home following the movie after all. She… Five There is very little chance of a high-speed pursuit on… Six Nikki stepped into the rooftop bar of the Soho House… Seven Even as she stood frozen in her hallway, Nikki’s first… Eight When Detective Heat nosed the Crown Vic out of underground… Nine Nikki Heat’s apartment building was not the Guilford. It was… Ten Nikki led him wordlessly into her bedroom and set the… Eleven Thirty minutes later, Detective Heat stepped off the Guilford’s elevator… Twelve The three detectives and Rook maintained a tense silence as… Thirteen In the precinct interrogation room, the biker, Brian Daniels, seemed… Fourteen Raley came back into the bullpen dangling his sport coat… Fifteen Jameson Rook stood in the precinct Observation Room staring in… Sixteen Nikki was tucking in her blouse as she sailed down… Seventeen The receptionist at Starr Real Estate Development popped back on… Eighteen On their drive back from the M.E.’s office, Nikki didn’t… Nineteen Heat, Raley, Ochoa, and Rook crossed through the lobby of… Twenty “Stop squirming,” said Noah Paxton. Rook started to turn his… Acknowledgments Copyright 4 of......

Words: 70446 - Pages: 282

Free Essay

Vision Board

...Nikki  de  Ruijter                       BUS110   11449576   Nikki  de  Ruijter   11449576     BUS110   Assignment  Three   Vision  Board     Value:     10%   Due  date:  12-­‐Aug-­‐2013                       1   Nikki  de  Ruijter     BUS110   11449576                 2   Nikki  de  Ruijter                 BUS110   11449576   When  viewed  up  close,  my  vision  board  is  made  up  of  a  collection  of  images  of   goals  synonymous  to  someone  of  my  age  and  educational  pursuits.  Pictures  of   overseas  travel,  small  business,  family,  hippy  art  installations,  orphanages  I  one   day  wish  to  donate  my  time,  and  overly  artistic  shots  of  coffee.  Upon  reflection  of   this  collection,  all  of  these  images  represent  the  end  goal  and  have  little  to  do   with  the  work  done  in  the  interim.  ‘How  very  Generation  Y  of  me’,  I  thought.   Then  we  pan  out  into  a  larger ......

Words: 623 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...HERMANOS MAYORES AQUINOS of PALO, LEYTE SATURNINO SORIANO AQUINO ROSA BARBOSA AQUINO CHILDREN: ROMEO “ROMY” AQUINO VIRGINIA “BEBE” AQUINO-LANUEVO SATURNINO “DODO” AQUINO, JR. JOSE “PEPSI” AQUINO TOMAS “TOMMY” AQUINO JUDITH AQUINO-SALAR MANUEL “NOLING” AQUINO TERESITA “TESSIE” AQUINO-METRAN EDUARDO “POTOY” B. AQUINO IMELDA “ODAY” AQUINO RENIE “BODOY” AQUINO ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The Aquino Clan expresses its sincere appreciation and gratitude to all our guest, friends and all member of the Aquino Clan who in one way or another helped make this 2010 celebration a SUCCESS!!! Merry Christmas and Happy New Year! WELCOME FEAST DAY CELEBRATION In honor of VIRGIN de los REMEDIOS (Patroness of AQUINO CLAN) & THE AQUINO CLAN GRAND REUNION 2010 December 18, 2010 Villaba Municipal Gym Villaba, Leyte AQUINOS of PALO, LEYTE 2010 HERMANOS MAYORES M _____________________________________ This Serve as an invitation PROGRAMME PART I - 9:00 – 10:00 a.m. HOLY SACRIFICE of the MASS in honor of the AQUINO CLAM Patroness VIRGIN de los REMEDIOS Venue: HOLY CHILD PARISH Celebrant: Fr. Amante Parish Priest PART II - 11:00 – 12:00 LUNCHEON Prayer before Meals-Judith Aquino-Salar Venue: VILLABA MUNICIPAL GYM Sponsored by the HERMANOS MAYORES PART III - 1:00 p.m. PROGRAM PROPER 1. Philippines National Anthem 2. Invocation ………………………. Ms Princess May Aquino ......

Words: 306 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Analysis of Silver Linings Playbook The main character, Pat Solitano Jr., who is played by Bradley Cooper, is a man with bipolar disorder who just left a psychiatric hospital in Maryland to return home to live with his mother and father. His mother signed him out against medical advice or “AMA”, without her husband knowing. He was sentenced to time in the hospital because of the beating of his wife's lover. He had caught his wife, Nikki, cheating on him, so he beat her lover and was then later diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder. Nikki had ordered a restraining order against him, since she knew he was not in the right state of mind, she wanted to protect herself. Pat was being treated for his illness with medication, but he was refusing to take it because of the way it was making him feel. Meanwhile, desperate to contact his ex-wife, he meets a woman named Tiffany Maxwell, who happens to play a huge role in Pat's future. Pat had been invited to an old friend's house for dinner where he met her; Tiffany's sister was a good friend of Nikki. In a round about way, the main character, Pat, uses Tiffany to reach out to Nikki through means of a letter, but not without agreeing to be a partner in an upcoming dance competition. In the end Pat and Tiffany fall in love. No one on earth is perfect or without flaws. We all struggle daily with internal and external conflicts. Some of us just know how to handle and cope with situations a little better than others. These are vital mechanisms needed in order to live a......

Words: 1827 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Literacy Narraitve

...only person I would let teach me was my big cousin, Nikki. She was in high school at the time. My mom had her come over and work with me after school. I thought Nikki was the smartest girl in the whole wide world. She would show me how to write the letters and then teach me what sound they made. I started to get frustrated because I just couldn’t get the hang of it. But one day, Nikki was sitting in a chair in the living room and I was flipping through the pages of a book. I was mostly looking at the pictures but I was squinting my eyes and trying my best to try and read. Suddenly, I sounded out the word bird. Nikki thought there was a bird on the page so I was just Pearson 2 saying what I saw, but when she looked there was no bird. I had read the word bird! I was so excited and couldn’t wait to start reading more. Nikki would bring her high school textbooks and her books she was assigned to read and I couldn’t help but think of how cool it would be to read one of those. I would try my hardest to read her books but it just never worked. The words were too long and the pictures were really weird. I stuck to the simple stuff. I’ll never forget the first time my teacher gave us homework. She gave us this little 7 page paperback book. It was more or so a mini coloring book. Mrs. Nolen told us that when we could bring it to her and read it to her we could go to the library and get a big book. As soon as I got home I told Nikki, “I have to learn to read this book so I......

Words: 854 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Montley Crew

...were on their way to the store to buy more alcohol . Vince was speeding when he wrecked his car and the wreck instantly killed Razzle. Nikki Sixx was addicted to heroine and alcohol. The heroine addiction was so bad that Nikki has overdose twice. The Alcohol addiction was had gotten so bad that Nikki and tommy would sit down together and shoot up Jack Daniels from syringes straight into their veins. Poor Mick Mars suffered from ankylosing spondylitis, which led him to being addicted to his prescription pain reliever. Mick was hallucinating from these drugs. As for Tommy Lee well he was addicted to alcohol and cocaine. Tommy’s drug addiction wasn’t like his alcohol addiction. Tommy and Nikki would sit in their dressing rooms backstage and get high on cocaine or heroine and would be drinking at the same time. Vince, Nikki, Mick, and Tommy have been through rehab. Nikki has been a fewer times than his fellow band mates because of his addictive personality . Another effect was gender being in the 1980s. Hair meal bands were wearing leather, boots, and makeup. They would have long hair and big hair. Also there was questions on their sexuality. Motley Crue had the look down from the leather and lace to the makeup and high heels. The deal with the sexuality was that the gay community would wear the leather and chains. The whole band wore high heels. Nikki was known to wear red thigh high heels. Also to get the big hairs was done by using the whole can of hair spray. Lastly is,......

Words: 575 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Music Paper

...Aar-Paar is a 1954 Bollywood film by Guru Dutt. I would categorize this film mainly as a Romantic genre because the main plot surrounds Kaalu trying to attain the love of Nikki and gaining the acceptance from her father to marry her. There are various subgenres and themes found throughout the film. One subgenre would be the dichotomy between the rich and the poor as Nikki’s father refuses to accept Kaalu because he is poor. Furthermore, this film also presents the theme of ‘Good versus Evil’ as Kaalu tries to escape the smuggling activities of the Captain. Consequently there are few elements of an action film such as a car race near the end of the movie. Thus, I would classify Aar-Paar as a Romantic film with Action as a subgenre and consisting of underlying themes such as ‘Rich versus Poor’ and ‘Good versus Evil’. Moreover, these genres and themes can be portrayed through the archetypes, stereotypes and songs throughout the film. The three songs that I will analyze from Aar-Paar are “Babuji Dheere Chalna”, “Sun Sun Sun Sun Zaalima”, and “Ja Ja Ja Ja Bewafa”. In observing the various genres and themes within this film, there are many archetypes and stereotypes. Nikki’s father, Laaji, represents the archetype of a ‘despotic’ father as he bans Kaalu from meeting Nikki. However, he eventually gives-in at the end and accepts Kaalu. On the other hand, Kaalu represents the archetype of a ‘Noble’ hero. He has certain goals in the film such as winning the heroine’s heart and......

Words: 1528 - Pages: 7

Free Essay


..."Nikki By Logic” I can feel you in my lungs, feel you in my veins Bloodstream only way to make it to my brain I tried some others but man they just not as good as you Going crazy cause I only feel this good with you Maybe I’m not as strong as I once was When we’re together lately I don’t even feel a buzz I’m addicted to this shit like it was hard drugs Nikki baby I love you but now I gotta go Cause in the end what happens you already know Probably wonder where I been at I been laying low But in my mind I’m wondering what I’m paying for All these other bitches on my dick but I can’t fuck with that You the only girl I need I gotta have you back Even though you turn my lungs black Tell me where you've been jack Uh, I know this shorty that go by the name Mary I used to fuck here way back when I didn't know a thing Skipping school with all my homies on some truancy But when I ended things with her it was just you and me Doing me good, that’s what I thought at first Me and you together swear to god I saw that work Away from you though man it's just so hard to work Uh, my heart is hard at work We been together like ten years, goddamn took me as young man Everyday I wonder who I am, who will I be, where will I go What will they write upon my grave A free man born as a king, who died as a slave But everything he gave her was for nothing though Oh no I can’t fade that shit I gotta let you go You got me tripping like a flight to Vegas All this shit you got...

Words: 568 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Nikki Rosa

...unconditionally. That is why the most important word in Nikki Giovanni’s poem “Nikki Rosa” is “family”, even though it is found halfway through the poem. Ms. Giovanni uses the poem to talk about a fictional character, whom embodies herself and Rosa Parks, and how when the autobiographers talk about her background it is always about the negative aspects of poverty, and not the positive aspects of having a loving family. Nikki Giovanni starts the poem off talking in a sarcastic way about how “Childhood remembrances are always a drag If your Black,” to show the reader how people will remember a person’s childhood as being horrible, just because of the color of a person’s skin. She then continues on about undesirables like having an outside toilet, or living in the hood, but then directly correlates that with the positivity of her family. She writes, “If you become famous… they never talk about how happy you were to have your mother all to yourself.” At this point in the poem, Ms. Giovanni wants the readers to understand that her viewpoint, and the viewpoints of autobiographers, on a single parent household, are complete opposite. Autobiographers’ view having an uninvolved parent as a harmful impact that can affect a child’s life. On the other hand, Ms. Giovanni sees the good that can come from forming a deep, and personal bond with the involved parent. She then continues on with the theme of family, by talking about her father. Nikki Giovanni shows how important the......

Words: 611 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

A for Alibi

...were given some money after their father. Also about Collin, Nikki´s son that he was a deaf. Then both of them arranged to meet up at 6:00pm the same day. Chapter 3 Kinsey goes to a phone booth and talks to Nikki. She asks her if she can visit her house in Montebello. They agree to go there and they meet up there. The house in Montebello was very large, and only the richest people lived there. Kinsey asked who had access to the keys in there, which she replied that only Lawrence, Nikki, Greg, Diane and the housekeeper had the keys. Then Nikki says that she owns a house in Santa Teresa because Lawrence’s mother gave it to her because she didn’t get along with him. Then she starts talking about why Gwen divorce. Also that Collin is a deaf and that he had a guardian dog. After that, Kinsey was doing exercise and Charlie appeared. He was ashamed that he wasn’t completely sincere so he offers taking her to her apartment. They met up there and so he told her that he had met her a few times. Kinsey felt a little attracted to the 48 yeared old man. They talked about Libby Glass. Charlie was a little supporting to her and so Charlie left. Chapter 4 Kinsey met Gwen at 6:00pm. They wanted to go to some kind of bar. They met there and started talking about the case. Nikki gave Kinsey the numbers of Greg and Diane in case she wanted to talk to her. They start discussing about who could have killed Lawrence. Then Nikki told her to talk to Charlote Mercer. And so she did, and......

Words: 819 - Pages: 4

High Neck Plain Sweaters | Technic Mega Nude Eyeshadow Palette Matte Shimmer Pink Bronze Gold Brown Shadow | American Dresser