Periodic Table

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Periodic table
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This article is about the table used in chemistry. For other uses, see The Periodic Table.

Standard form of the periodic table. The colors represent different categories of elements explained below.
The periodic table is a tabular display of the chemical elements, organized on the basis of their atomic numbers and chemical properties. Elements are presented in increasing atomic number. The main body of the table is a 18 × 7 grid, and elements with the same number of valence electrons are kept together in groups, such as the halogens and the noble gases. Due to this, there are gaps that form four distinct rectangular areas or blocks. The f-block is not included in the main table, but rather is usually floated below, as an inline f-block would make the table impractically wide. Using periodic trends, the periodic table can help predict the properties of various elements and the relations between properties. As a result, it provides a useful framework for analyzing chemical behavior, and is widely used in chemistry and other sciences.
Although precursors exist, the current table is generally credited to Dmitri Mendeleev, who developed it in 1869 to illustrate periodic trends in the properties of the then-known elements; the layout has been refined and extended as new elements have been discovered and new theoretical models developed to explain chemical behavior. Mendeleev's presentation also predicted some properties of then-unknown elements expected to fill gaps in his arrangement; most of these predictions were proved correct when those elements were discovered and found to have properties close to the predictions.
All elements from atomic numbers 1 (hydrogen) to 118 (ununoctium) have been synthesized. Of these, all up to and including californium exist naturally; the rest…...

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