Persatuan Sosialis Soviet

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Persatuan Republik Sosialis Soviet

Persatuan Republik Sosialis Soviet ( Rusia : Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik disingkat CCCP [aksara klerik] atau SSSR [aksara latin]) adalah sebuah negara sosialis konstitusional yang berdiri dari tahun 1922 hingga 1991 yang daerahnya meliputi sebagian besar warisan Imperium Russia.
Uni Soviet didirikan Desember 1922 dibentuk dari RSFS (Republik Sosialis Federasi Soviet) Rusia yang diperoleh dari Revolusi 1917 dan digabung dari berbagai kemenangan dari perang sipil seperti Republik Sosialis Soviet (RSS) Transkaukasian, Ukraina, dan Belarusia . Uni Soviet seperti halnya RRC, hanya mengenal kediktatoran partai tunggal yaitu Partai Komunis.
Maret 1917, Tsar Nikolas II memundurkan diri dan digantikan oleh pemerintahan sementara pimpinan Alexander Kerensky. Pemerintahan ini penuh ketidakstabilan sehingga dengan mudah Bolshevik pimpinan Lenin dan Soviet Petrograd menguasai ibukota secara efektif bulan November. Bulan Maret 1918, pemerintah Bolshevik keluar dari Perang Dunia I.

Masalah belum selesai, kaum ninggrat tak rela dengan kenyataan melakukan pemberontakan yang berujung pada Perang Saudara 1917 hingga 1923. Beuntung, Soviet memiliki panglima yang hebat, Lev Trotsky. Walau tak punya latar belakang militer, ia membangun semangat dan disiplin tinggi bagi tentara barunya dengan luar biasa. Tapi kamerad Stalin semberono dengan tidak mau memakai bekas tentara Tsar dan melakukan kesalahan yang berakibat kehilangan Polandia. Pada akhirnya pula Tentara Merah Petani dan Pekerja, demikian nama angkatan bersenjata ini dinamai menang dengan menyakinkan.
Pendirian Uni Soviet
Pada 28 Desember 1922, sebuah konferensi dihadiri oleh delegasi berkuasa penuh yang berasal dari RSFS Rusia, RSFS Transkaukasia, RSS Ukraina dan RSS Belorusia menyutujui pendirian Persatuan Republik Sosialis Soviet. Dokumen ini dipertegas dan…...

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