Free Essay

Proposal

In: Business and Management

Submitted By muvheti
Words 2749
Pages 11
8086 assembler tutorial for beginners (part 2)

Memory Access

to access memory we can use these four registers: BX, SI, DI, BP. combining these registers inside [ ] symbols, we can get different memory locations. these combinations are supported (addressing modes): [BX + SI]
[BX + DI]
[BP + SI]
[BP + DI] | [SI]
[DI]
d16 (variable offset only)
[BX] | [BX + SI + d8]
[BX + DI + d8]
[BP + SI + d8]
[BP + DI + d8] | [SI + d8]
[DI + d8]
[BP + d8]
[BX + d8] | [BX + SI + d16]
[BX + DI + d16]
[BP + SI + d16]
[BP + DI + d16] | [SI + d16]
[DI + d16]
[BP + d16]
[BX + d16] |

d8 - stays for 8 bit signed immediate displacement (for example: 22, 55h, -1, etc...)

d16 - stays for 16 bit signed immediate displacement (for example: 300, 5517h, -259, etc...).

displacement can be a immediate value or offset of a variable, or even both. if there are several values, assembler evaluates all values and calculates a single immediate value..

displacement can be inside or outside of the [ ] symbols, assembler generates the same machine code for both ways.

displacement is a signed value, so it can be both positive or negative.

generally the compiler takes care about difference between d8 and d16, and generates the required machine code.

for example, let's assume that DS = 100, BX = 30, SI = 70.
The following addressing mode: [BX + SI] + 25 is calculated by processor to this physical address: 100 * 16 + 30 + 70 + 25 = 1725.

by default DS segment register is used for all modes except those with BP register, for these SS segment register is used.

there is an easy way to remember all those possible combinations using this chart:

you can form all valid combinations by taking only one item from each column or skipping the column by not taking anything from it. as you see BX and BP never go together. SI and DI also don't go together. here are an examples of a valid addressing modes: [BX+5] , [BX+SI] , [DI+BX-4]

the value in segment register (CS, DS, SS, ES) is called a segment, and the value in purpose register (BX, SI, DI, BP) is called an offset.
When DS contains value 1234h and SI contains the value 7890h it can be also recorded as 1234:7890. The physical address will be 1234h * 10h + 7890h = 19BD0h.

if zero is added to a decimal number it is multiplied by 10, however 10h = 16, so if zero is added to a hexadecimal value, it is multiplied by 16, for example:

7h = 7
70h = 112

in order to say the compiler about data type, these prefixes should be used:

byte ptr - for byte. word ptr - for word (two bytes).

for example: byte ptr [BX] ; byte access. or word ptr [BX] ; word access. assembler supports shorter prefixes as well:

b. - for byte ptr
w. - for word ptr

in certain cases the assembler can calculate the data type automatically.

MOV instruction * copies the second operand (source) to the first operand (destination). * the source operand can be an immediate value, general-purpose register or memory location. * the destination register can be a general-purpose register, or memory location. * both operands must be the same size, which can be a byte or a word. these types of operands are supported:MOV REG, memory
MOV memory, REG
MOV REG, REG
MOV memory, immediate
MOV REG, immediate REG: AX, BX, CX, DX, AH, AL, BL, BH, CH, CL, DH, DL, DI, SI, BP, SP.

memory: [BX], [BX+SI+7], variable, etc...

immediate: 5, -24, 3Fh, 10001101b, etc... |

for segment registers only these types of MOV are supported:MOV SREG, memory
MOV memory, SREG
MOV REG, SREG
MOV SREG, REGSREG: DS, ES, SS, and only as second operand: CS.

REG: AX, BX, CX, DX, AH, AL, BL, BH, CH, CL, DH, DL, DI, SI, BP, SP.

memory: [BX], [BX+SI+7], variable, etc... |

the MOV instruction cannot be used to set the value of the CS and IP registers. here is a short program that demonstrates the use of MOV instruction: ORG 100h ; this directive required for a simple 1 segment .com program. MOV AX, 0B800h ; set AX to hexadecimal value of B800h. MOV DS, AX ; copy value of AX to DS. MOV CL, 'A' ; set CL to ASCII code of 'A', it is 41h. MOV CH, 1101_1111b ; set CH to binary value. MOV BX, 15Eh ; set BX to 15Eh. MOV [BX], CX ; copy contents of CX to memory at B800:015E RET ; returns to operating system. |

you can copy & paste the above program to the code editor, and press [Compile and Emulate] button (or press F5 key on your keyboard).

the emulator window should open with this program loaded, click [Single Step] button and watch the register values.

how to do copy & paste: 1. select the above text using mouse, click before the text and drag it down until everything is selected. 2. press Ctrl + C combination to copy. 3. go to the source editor and press Ctrl + V combination to paste.

as you may guess, ";" is used for comments, anything after ";" symbol is ignored by compiler.

you should see something like that when program finishes:

actually the above program writes directly to video memory, so you may see that MOV is a very powerful instruction.

<<< previous part <<< >>> Next Part >>>

8086 assembler tutorial for beginners (part 3)

Variables

Variable is a memory location. For a programmer it is much easier to have some value be kept in a variable named "var1" then at the address 5A73:235B, especially when you have 10 or more variables.

Our compiler supports two types of variables: BYTE and WORD. Syntax for a variable declaration:

name DB value

name DW value

DB - stays for Define Byte.
DW - stays for Define Word.

name - can be any letter or digit combination, though it should start with a letter. It's possible to declare unnamed variables by not specifying the name (this variable will have an address but no name).

value - can be any numeric value in any supported numbering system (hexadecimal, binary, or decimal), or "?" symbol for variables that are not initialized. |

As you probably know from part 2 of this tutorial, MOV instruction is used to copy values from source to destination.
Let's see another example with MOV instruction: ORG 100h MOV AL, var1 MOV BX, var2 RET ; stops the program. VAR1 DB 7 var2 DW 1234h |

Copy the above code to the source editor, and press F5 key to compile it and load in the emulator. You should get something like:

As you see this looks a lot like our example, except that variables are replaced with actual memory locations. When compiler makes machine code, it automatically replaces all variable names with their offsets. By default segment is loaded in DS register (when COM files is loaded the value of DS register is set to the same value as CS register - code segment).

In memory list first row is an offset, second row is a hexadecimal value, third row is decimal value, and last row is an ASCII character value.

Compiler is not case sensitive, so "VAR1" and "var1" refer to the same variable.

The offset of VAR1 is 0108h, and full address is 0B56:0108.

The offset of var2 is 0109h, and full address is 0B56:0109, this variable is a WORD so it occupies 2 BYTES. It is assumed that low byte is stored at lower address, so 34h is located before 12h.

You can see that there are some other instructions after the RET instruction, this happens because disassembler has no idea about where the data starts, it just processes the values in memory and it understands them as valid 8086 instructions (we will learn them later).
You can even write the same program using DB directive only: ORG 100h DB 0A0h DB 08h DB 01h DB 8Bh DB 1Eh DB 09h DB 01h DB 0C3h DB 7 DB 34h DB 12h |

Copy the above code to the source editor, and press F5 key to compile and load it in the emulator. You should get the same disassembled code, and the same functionality!

As you may guess, the compiler just converts the program source to the set of bytes, this set is called machine code, processor understands the machine code and executes it.

ORG 100h is a compiler directive (it tells compiler how to handle the source code). This directive is very important when you work with variables. It tells compiler that the executable file will be loaded at the offset of 100h (256 bytes), so compiler should calculate the correct address for all variables when it replaces the variable names with their offsets. Directives are never converted to any real machine code.
Why executable file is loaded at offset of 100h? Operating system keeps some data about the program in the first 256 bytes of the CS (code segment), such as command line parameters and etc.
Though this is true for COM files only, EXE files are loaded at offset of 0000, and generally use special segment for variables. Maybe we'll talk more about EXE files later.

Arrays

Arrays can be seen as chains of variables. A text string is an example of a byte array, each character is presented as an ASCII code value (0..255).

Here are some array definition examples:

a DB 48h, 65h, 6Ch, 6Ch, 6Fh, 00h b DB 'Hello', 0

b is an exact copy of the a array, when compiler sees a string inside quotes it automatically converts it to set of bytes. This chart shows a part of the memory where these arrays are declared:

You can access the value of any element in array using square brackets, for example:
MOV AL, a[3]

You can also use any of the memory index registers BX, SI, DI, BP, for example:
MOV SI, 3
MOV AL, a[SI]

If you need to declare a large array you can use DUP operator.
The syntax for DUP:

number DUP ( value(s) ) number - number of duplicate to make (any constant value). value - expression that DUP will duplicate.

for example: c DB 5 DUP(9) is an alternative way of declaring: c DB 9, 9, 9, 9, 9

one more example: d DB 5 DUP(1, 2) is an alternative way of declaring: d DB 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2

Of course, you can use DW instead of DB if it's required to keep values larger then 255, or smaller then -128. DW cannot be used to declare strings.

Getting the Address of a Variable

There is LEA (Load Effective Address) instruction and alternative OFFSET operator. Both OFFSET and LEA can be used to get the offset address of the variable.
LEA is more powerful because it also allows you to get the address of an indexed variables. Getting the address of the variable can be very useful in some situations, for example when you need to pass parameters to a procedure.

Reminder:
In order to tell the compiler about data type, these prefixes should be used:

BYTE PTR - for byte.
WORD PTR - for word (two bytes).

For example: BYTE PTR [BX] ; byte access. or WORD PTR [BX] ; word access. assembler supports shorter prefixes as well:

b. - for BYTE PTR
w. - for WORD PTR

in certain cases the assembler can calculate the data type automatically.

Here is first example: ORG 100h MOV AL, VAR1 ; check value of VAR1 by moving it to AL. LEA BX, VAR1 ; get address of VAR1 in BX. MOV BYTE PTR [BX], 44h ; modify the contents of VAR1. MOV AL, VAR1 ; check value of VAR1 by moving it to AL. RET VAR1 DB 22h END |

Here is another example, that uses OFFSET instead of LEA: ORG 100h MOV AL, VAR1 ; check value of VAR1 by moving it to AL. MOV BX, OFFSET VAR1 ; get address of VAR1 in BX. MOV BYTE PTR [BX], 44h ; modify the contents of VAR1. MOV AL, VAR1 ; check value of VAR1 by moving it to AL. RET VAR1 DB 22h END |

Both examples have the same functionality.

These lines:
LEA BX, VAR1
MOV BX, OFFSET VAR1 are even compiled into the same machine code: MOV BX, num num is a 16 bit value of the variable offset.

Please note that only these registers can be used inside square brackets (as memory pointers): BX, SI, DI, BP!
(see previous part of the tutorial).

Constants

Constants are just like variables, but they exist only until your program is compiled (assembled). After definition of a constant its value cannot be changed. To define constants EQU directive is used: name EQU < any expression >

For example: k EQU 5

MOV AX, k |

The above example is functionally identical to code: MOV AX, 5 |

You can view variables while your program executes by selecting "Variables" from the "View" menu of emulator.

To view arrays you should click on a variable and set Elements property to array size. In assembly language there are not strict data types, so any variable can be presented as an array.

Variable can be viewed in any numbering system: * HEX - hexadecimal (base 16). * BIN - binary (base 2). * OCT - octal (base 8). * SIGNED - signed decimal (base 10). * UNSIGNED - unsigned decimal (base 10). * CHAR - ASCII char code (there are 256 symbols, some symbols are invisible).

You can edit a variable's value when your program is running, simply double click it, or select it and click Edit button.

It is possible to enter numbers in any system, hexadecimal numbers should have "h" suffix, binary "b" suffix, octal "o" suffix, decimal numbers require no suffix. String can be entered this way:
'hello world', 0
(this string is zero terminated).

Arrays may be entered this way:
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
(the array can be array of bytes or words, it depends whether BYTE or WORD is selected for edited variable).

Expressions are automatically converted, for example: when this expression is entered:
5 + 2 it will be converted to 7 etc...

<<< previous part <<< >>> Next Part >>>

8086 assembler tutorial for beginners (part 4)

Interrupts

Interrupts can be seen as a number of functions. These functions make the programming much easier, instead of writing a code to print a character you can simply call the interrupt and it will do everything for you. There are also interrupt functions that work with disk drive and other hardware. We call such functions software interrupts.

Interrupts are also triggered by different hardware, these are called hardware interrupts. Currently we are interested in software interrupts only.

To make a software interrupt there is an INT instruction, it has very simple syntax:
INT value
Where value can be a number between 0 to 255 (or 0 to 0FFh), generally we will use hexadecimal numbers.
You may think that there are only 256 functions, but that is not correct. Each interrupt may have sub-functions.
To specify a sub-function AH register should be set before calling interrupt.
Each interrupt may have up to 256 sub-functions (so we get 256 * 256 = 65536 functions). In general AH register is used, but sometimes other registers maybe in use. Generally other registers are used to pass parameters and data to sub-function.

The following example uses INT 10h sub-function 0Eh to type a "Hello!" message. This functions displays a character on the screen, advancing the cursor and scrolling the screen as necessary. ORG 100h ; instruct compiler to make simple single segment .com file. ; The sub-function that we are using ; does not modify the AH register on ; return, so we may set it only once. MOV AH, 0Eh ; select sub-function. ; INT 10h / 0Eh sub-function ; receives an ASCII code of the ; character that will be printed ; in AL register. MOV AL, 'H' ; ASCII code: 72 INT 10h ; print it! MOV AL, 'e' ; ASCII code: 101 INT 10h ; print it! MOV AL, 'l' ; ASCII code: 108 INT 10h ; print it! MOV AL, 'l' ; ASCII code: 108 INT 10h ; print it! MOV AL, 'o' ; ASCII code: 111 INT 10h ; print it! MOV AL, '!' ; ASCII code: 33 INT 10h ; print it! RET ; returns to operating system. |

Copy & paste the above program to the source code editor, and press [Compile and Emulate] button. Run it!

See list of supported interrupts for more information about interrupts.

<<< previous part <<< >>> Next Part >>>…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Proposal

...XXXXX University Memorandum TO: Dr. XXXXXX FROM: XXXXXXX DATE: October 7, 2012 (Revised Submission October 3, 2012 (Original Submission) SUBJECT: Bridge Replacement Proposal for Technical Writing Course Project I would like to use a portion of an ongoing bridge replacement design project from my workplace for the duration of this course. I have verified with the appropriate people at my workplace that this design project can be shared in this class. PURPOSE The purpose of my project is to complete the Preliminary Design of the Replacement of the Lock Street Bridge in Manayunk, PA. Various bridge types and sizes will be evaluated for the Lock Street site and these will be discussed in the Preliminary Design Report. This report will be submitted to the project’s clients, Philadelphia Streets Department (Streets) and Philadelphia Water Department (PWD), for approval at the Preliminary Design Presentation. The presentation will illustrate the recommended replacement bridge and briefly discuss the other design options that were explored. AUDIENCE AND USE Upper level management and project managers of Streets and PWD will read and comment or approve the project proposal. Project managers and technical engineers of these same government agencies will read and comment or approve the design report. PWD will be funding the design and construction costs for the project but have little to no bridge design experience. To assist with the bridge design......

Words: 624 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Proposal

...and why object-oriented languages are necessary to today’s working environment. How the project topic is influenced by (and/or influences) history, culture, media, and/or the arts from a national or world perspective These are some of the major advantages of OOP. Simplicity: software objects model real world objects, so the complexity is reduced and the program structure is very clear. Modularity: each object forms a separate entity whose internal workings are decoupled from other parts of the system. Modifiability: it is easy to make minor changes in the data representation or the procedures in an OO program. Thus, this will influence the world perspective that programming is not so hard. Audience The intended audiences for my proposal are software development companies. I believe that I can encourage them to combine or advance their technology to not only improve their work productive, but to boost their employee’s manner. Audience Position The audience may already be alert to this concept of introducing object-oriented languages in the workplace. Newer, more lively programmers will be more interested to this idea than they seasoned, experienced programmers who are set in their ways and castoff technology in general. I will communicate that learning styles have shifted in today’s generation and programmers should accommodate as needed. The advantages offset the disadvantages (like cost) and will inspire failing companies to perform at a level that they......

Words: 742 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Proposal

...Sealed Bids vs. Competitive Proposals Strayer University Cost and Price Analysis – BUS 315 Sealed Bids vs. Competitive Proposals When the government has recognized a necessity for supply and services, they immediately conduct a market research, and find probable sources of supply. This information is then sent to the contracting officer for procurement. The contracting officer is solely responsible in determining if the procurement may be accomplished through sealed bidding or negotiation. Sealed bidding is the government method to make known of a need by a solicitation named Invitation for Bid (IFB). Negotiation as used in the acquisition process, means contracting through the use of competitive proposals and discussions, between the contracting officer and the contractor. These government solicitations for negotiation are called Request for Proposal (RFP). The solicitation process originates similar for sealed bids and competitive proposals. The contracting officer announces an IFB for sealed bids, and/or a RFP for a competitive proposal, in FedBizOpps. Most solicitations are accessible, and can be copied directly from the Internet. The contractor upon awareness of these solicitations replies by submitting a bid for the sealed bidding, and/or a proposal for the competitive proposal solicitation. Most contractors contemplate sealed bidding as the less pricey, fastest economical procurement method since no time is lost in negotiations. Bids are assessed......

Words: 531 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Proposal

...COMPULSORY SEMINAR TASK: PROPOSAL WRITING ►TASK TO BE OBSERVED Too many customers purchase from your company once only, and the Sales Manager has asked staff to think of ways to retain more of them. Write YOUR PROPOSAL for the Sales Manager, ■ suggesting a reason for the lack of repeat orders ■ putting forward one or two ways to retain customers ■ outlining how your ideas could be implemented ■ mentioning one or two possible disadvantages of your ideas Write 250 words. ►TASK ACHIEVEMENT TO: Customer Services Manager FROM: Gerry Lewis Date: January 4, 2010 Subject: Customer Loyalty BACKGROUND INFORMATION This proposal is being submitted in order to identify problems that have led to a decrease in the number of repeat orders on the part of our customers and also to suggest possible strategies for enhancing customer retention which is crucial for the wellbeing of the company. It also puts forward practical ideas as to how to implement the suggestions made and one possible drawback deriving from them. REASON FOR LACK OF REPEAT ORDERS The proportion of customers placing repeat orders has halved in the last two years, to 12 per cent. One possible cause is the reduction in our sales personnel through natural wastage. PROPOSALS TO RETAIN CUSTOMERS I suggest two ways of improving the customer retention rate. One suggestion is connected to recruiting three sales people to return to the full complement that we had until two years ago. This......

Words: 528 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

It Proposal

...elow is a typical business proposal template taken from one of the Proposal Packs available from my favorite proposal tools site, ProposalKit.com. These stand-alone Proposal Packs were created for just about any type of proposal you can imagine: business proposals, grant proposals, technical proposals, project proposals, sales proposals, and many more. They are stand-alone sets of proposal templates designed using industry standard guidelines. Each Proposal Pack includes a large collection of fully-formatted downloadable MS-Word templates with layout and graphics already done. You just fill in the blanks and easily create business proposals, from 3-pagers to full-blown 100-pagers. When I first discovered these ProposalKit.com. Proposal Packs, a part of me wanted to weep! Where were these high-quality, real-life proposal templates when I needed them over the years? Had I had access to these Proposal Packs years ago, and some of the related materials carried by ProposalKit.com, I certainly would have saved a lot of time, money, energy, and aggravation. (... and so would have many of my clients). Here are a few points that impressed me about this sample template: It is a professional looking document created for an actual real-life proposal situation. Proposal is fully formatted in final submission form with layout and graphics included. Includes a very good one-page Executive Summary that focuses on solutions and benefits for the Client. The body...

Words: 385 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Proposal

...Proposal to: Mayor and Chief Medical Officer Proposal Title: Nursing Care Center By: Nightingale Nurse Recruit, Nursing Director: Anesta Parris; Medical Information Technology Directors: Dawn Froemel & Ernestina Ayon; Laboratory Services Director: Andrea Dabney April 12, 2013 Introduction Please accept this proposal for the new Riverview Hospital Nursing Care Center. Key health care directors have contributed to this plan. Each director’s perspective is shared as related to his/her department. The following pages of this proposal contain their ideas and touch on the following considerations for the planning of this new facility: The specific department services provided How nursing care center services coordinate with the services the hospital provides How nursing care center departments interact and coordinate with each other to provide efficient and effective care Potential grants to assist with funding the nursing care center project How departments demonstrate consideration and application of the nursing care center code of ethics Executive Summary Nursing Director Executive Summary Nationwide, nursing staffs is changing in today world include not only long-term to care for their patients’. The population of people receiving treatments in the hospital is becoming highly trained and committed to health care staffs. The goal is to make a difference and to take action to improve the nursing staffs. Highly recommend to improve the nurses to limited...

Words: 3470 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Proposal

...In this day and age, people of all races and sex’s, are becoming increasingly overweight. This main problem stems a number of medical and economical concerns as the “obese” continue to suffer greater probability of heart disease, high blood pressure, and reduced work productivity. It is obvious that this matter cannot continue lest the world be strained by easily averted medical disasters. I wholeheartedly believe that society would be better off without them and even better then that if they are put to use. Therefore I propose that anyone that is currently in the obese category, along with those that enter after my proposal take effect, shall be rounded up and put into work camps. When the obese first enter the camps, their weight shall be taken and recorded into official records for future use. After the check in process is complete, the workers will be delegated to a variety of manual labor jobs that would seem “unpleasant” to the average weight individual. The work itself will be beneficial to society. For example, employers will not have to pay reluctant workers by the hour to slack off most of the day but instead be able to train them for more skilled positions of the workforce. These now skilled average weight workers will prove more effective in society and thus contribute to a growing economy. Also, the manual labor will contribute to the better health of those obese. By getting into better shape, these individuals will reduce their risk of various medical......

Words: 591 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Proposal

...Aizhamal Usubakunova WEC 09 Couse paper Proposal Toyota Motor Company Introduction: The introduction provides a brief overview of Toyota Company. This report will focus on; the automobile market, Toyota's background and its business, strategies of  Toyota in both management and cross-cultural strategies, the recent financial performance of the organization in domestic and overseas automobile markets, reasons and challenges encouraging Toyota to invest overseas.  Structure: 1) Overview of Toyota Industry Corporation’s business activities a) What is the contribution of Automobile Industry in world economy for todays? This section describes the role of automobile industry in world market and how affect for them. Also discuss the definition of automobile industry and innovation in last 10 years in this sector. i will write a brief information about changes and breakthrough new automobiles. b) Toyota: How does the legend become? This section represent about history and general information of Toyota Motors Company. Its describe how Toyota begin their business and how promote them. c) What are the strategies of Toyota Company? This sector present the strategies which use Toyota use to achieve. This section describes their mission and visions. Which logo and rule they use to develop business and became corporation. d) Which achievements they take? This chapter presents achievements of company. Which result gives their work and experience? ...

Words: 517 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Proposal

...THESIS PROPOSAL NAME : Nadipineni Narendranadh TOPIC : Automatic Grading System Using INTRODUCTION Assessment provides the teacher with a feedback channel that shows how learning goals are being met. It also ensures for an outside observer that students achieve those learning goals. Assessment provides both means to guide student learning and feedback for both the learner and the teacher about the learning process – from the level of a whole course down to a single student on some specific topic being assessed. Students often direct their efforts based on what is assessed and how it effects the final course grade. Continuous assessment during a programming course ensures that students get enough practice as well as get feed- back on the quality of their solutions. Providing quality assessment manually for even a small class means that feed-Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. back cannot be as instant as in one-to-one tutoring. When the class size grows, the amount of assessed work has to be cut down or rationalized in some other way. Many Computer Aided Approaches (CAA) approaches have been proposed for......

Words: 407 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Proposal

...forced to change them. This resulted in the people to further increase their expenses on the cars which decreased the credibility of the company and the future potential buyers hesitated in buying cars from our company. Keeping this in mind, I along with the board of directors of my company decided to seek the help of a professional tire manufacturing company in this regard to not only increase the quality of the tires installed in the car but also increase the customer satisfaction with our company. This resulted in the company to get into a negotiation deal with the XYZ tire manufacturing company, which also happens to be the globally recognized company in the world. I personally held a meeting with the CEO of XYZ company and discussed the proposal for the deal with him. The positives of the deal for both the companies were deeply defined and the second meeting was called with the board of directors of both companies to further move on in the deal-making process. Keeping in view the advantages associated with the deal for both the organizations, the negotiation deal was completed and signed. After the implementation of the deal, signification profits were observed in the financial reports of both the companies....

Words: 299 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Proposal

...Proforma Proposal Supervisor: Miss Lynda Lutwyche Title of Project: Impact of Consumer’s perception, behavior and response towards Costa Coffee Background and justification: There are many coffee shops in the market. Thus, many companies are emphasizing the importance of brand awareness and understanding consumer preference. There is a need to study about whether the consumer’s perception, behavior and response have any impact on Costa Coffee. Research Question: What is the perception of consumer towards the Costa Coffee brand name? ; What are the advantages if these perceptions of consumer are good? Objectives: To critically review literature on Costa Coffee ; To identify the typical consumers of Costa Coffee ; To ascertain the perspective of consumers’ buying behaviors and attitudes ; To estimate purchase intention of consumers ; To understand the satisfaction levels of consumers ; To assess the aspects of Costa Coffee that consumers would seek to improve. Key Literature Sources: There are additional literatures inserted in this research. 4.1 Purchase Intention Purchase intention means the probability that consumers attempt to buy a product or service in future and make repetition purchases, or defined by buying process, means the intensity of product reference consumers perceive between making the purchase evaluation and the actual purchase behavior. (Halim, 2005) There are certain variables that can be used to measure consumer purchase intention. (Laroche,......

Words: 623 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Proposal

...The objective of this project is to develop a business proposal for an air charter company that caters to the tourism trade from an information technology standpoint operating in the Hawaiian Islands. The technologies that will be discussed will range from hardware and software requirements for weather, flight planning, crew scheduling and maintenance operations. To begin we will examine the flight planning system known as Jeppesen Flite Star IFR which is considered one of the world's leading desktop flight planning technologies. It includes advanced features and innovations such as Vector Plus mapping technology and vector chart themes, which offer low and high altitude en-route chart emulations as well as user-customizable charts which includes all of the complexities involved in the planning of a typical commercial airline flight from the aspect of the flight operations dispatcher. Next as we continue we will turn the discussion to crew scheduling which will lead us to Flight Pak which provides management with aircrew scheduling in both local and ZULU times. The discussion will point to how the system will provide more accuracy in the scheduling challenges managers face and additionally because of its extremely fast, point and click graphical scheduling capabilities which is designed to be not only compatible across all networks, but is also usable as a standalone tool as well which will enhance the competitive advantage of the business Finally we will......

Words: 263 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Proposal

...THE PROPOSAL A Modest Proposal I had to read the proposal a couple of times to understand what the intention of it was. English being my second language makes it hard for me to easily understand the writing from the past. For what I understood the ending was a lot different than what I expected. I was expecting for Jonathan Swift to end the proposal by stating everyone would become a slave. Also, by following the proposal “A Modest Proposal” you would thing everyone is going to be either killed, sent to jail, or become a slave. According to the reading, everything is going real bad in the community. I think the turning point for me was when Jonathan Swift wrote, “that they will first ask the parents of these mortals” (as cited in Sayre, 2012, p. 775). This section made me realize Swift was in favor of fixing the poverty of the Irish families. I started to understand the why he wrote the proposal. The whole meaning behind proposal was to seek for other help in fixing the poverty in the town. Jonathan Swift was a good writer in his time. He was respected by the people that surrounded him. Swift did a very good job in his writing where he was able to grab me in the start and had me thinking one thing. Once I finish the reading the proposal a couple of times it was very impressing on how he had me changes my focus. Once I understood what he was doing with his writing it was amazing. It is very interesting on how writers make you think one thing in the start and......

Words: 308 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Proposal

...Brianne Foster ENGL 279 Dr. Aiping Zhang Term Paper Proposal The topic I’d like to explore for my term paper is the heavy gender role/ stereotypes placed on women throughout different cultures and times. I want to bring to light the moments in which women were oppressed in all aspects of their life. I am interested in this topic because I am a woman myself and although I haven’t had to deal with all the trials and tribulations as the women of these times, this is still my history. Women have always been oppressed into a stereotype, even in today’s society there are still certain stigmas on the female gender. This issue is discussed and expressed in all forms of today’s media, education, policies and so on. Many perspectives on this issue bring forth feminism acts and organizations with goals aimed towards equal rights for men and women. Without these struggles I don’t know where I’d be in today’s society. The two texts that I have selected to write my comparison on are The Awakening by Kate Chopin and Daisy Miller by Henry James to which I’ll be able to compare the bias and misery between each woman’s struggles. The questions that my research will cover will expand on the ideals and basis of the female gender role throughout history and the main concepts as to why they are placed in those realms. Within my preliminary research I have found the repetitive oppression of the women spirit and freedom. In my paper I will present my two literature selections as support......

Words: 722 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Proposal

...international joint venture proposal of the company. Fynalyzer is committed to developing diverse businesses in other parts of the world and are interested in other potential projects. The government of the country is interested in proceeding rapidly with the privatization of selected industries and in encouraging an influx of foreign, private sector capital investment to help revitalize the country’s economy. In order to guarantee the long-term success of both firms and to enable it to compete withtrends of business, it should develop the capability to produce international quality services that will be consistently the benchmark among other firms. Growth in and development of the existing business of Finalyzer will benefit the country, the employees and management of both firms through larger revenues to the government, enhanced prosperity for the community and personnel, transfer of technical and management expertise for both firms, and a large probability of increased number of clients for foreign transactions. Finalyzer proposes to link its major services with E&Y and to collaborate its employees with them, thus creating a partnership for similar services of the firms. This approach can be negotiated and implemented rapidly. This program is expected to act as a magnet that will attract other international clients to the company. This joint venture proposal is preliminary and is intended to assist in discussions and negotiations. This proposal is supported by the......

Words: 1439 - Pages: 6

Neu eingestellt | 1,8 - 10,1Kg EP-Harz Epoxidharz GFK Epoxydharz Epoxi Laminierharz Top-Qualität | Zubehör