Supermassive Blackholes

In: Science

Submitted By scarface82
Words 2334
Pages 10

Supermassive Black Holes were first theorized to exist in the 1790’s. John Michell of England and Pierre LaPlace of France independently suggested the existence of an "invisible star." Michell and LaPlace calculated the mass and size — which is now called the
"event horizon" — that an object needs in order to have an escape velocity greater than the speed of light. In 1967 John Wheeler, an American theoretical physicist, applied the term "black hole" to these collapsed objects.
It wasn’t until the early 1970’s that an intense an intense X-ray source was found in the constellation Cygnus called Cygnus X-1. As the years passed, in the spring of 1972, Cygnus X-1 was identified with a star known by its classification number HDE226868 (which is a radio source). Astronomers have since found convincing evidence for a supermassive black hole in the center of the giant elliptical galaxy M87, as well as in several other galaxies.
The discovery is based on velocity measurements of a whirlpool of hot gas orbiting the black hole. In 1994, Hubble Space Telescope data produced an unprecedented measurement of the mass of an unseen object at the center of M87. Based on the kinetic energy of the material whirling about the center (as in Wheeler's dance, see
Question 4 above), the object is about 3 billion times the mass of our Sun and appears to be concentrated into a space smaller than our solar system.

A supermassive black hole is the largest type of black hole in a galaxy, in the order of hundreds of thousands to billions of solar masses. Most, and possibly all galaxies, including the Milky
Way, are believed to contain supermassive black holes at their centers. Supermassive black holes have properties which distinguish them from lower-mass classifications:

The average density of a supermassive black…...

Similar Documents

One Genre Fits All?

...horror and action in the film through the use of techniques such as; suspenseful non-diegetic sounds, low saturation, violence etc. Being a hard Sci-Fi Film, the addition of elements from the thriller, horror and action genres fit well with the idea of being stuck on a planet with aliens. A very important element that allows Science Fiction to be unique even though it has other genres integrated through it is that no matter what the cross genre in the film, a Sci-Fi movie always makes a social comment (usually about the future) and also often has a strong female protagonist. Both of these elements appeal to people of modern society as they can relate to it. These can be seen in Scott Ridley’s film Alien and Geraldine Stowe’s short story Blackhole. Scott Ridley’s 1979 film Alien is as Roger Ebert reviews ‘a great original.’ The famous hard sci-fi movie ticked all the boxes as to what’s in sci-fi movie with its sci-fi look of a metallic spaceship and robotic commanders making it appeal to many people. ‘At its most fundamental level, Alien is a movie about things that can jump out of the dark and kill you.’ states Ebert. We see the cross genre classification used with elements of the horror and thriller genres integrated through the film. Ridley carefully uses film techniques from these genres such as suspense and low saturation from the second the title and catch phrase ‘In Space no one can hear you scream’ come on screen. There are many social comments made throughout......

Words: 1302 - Pages: 6


...The internal structure of the sun and other stars cannot be directly observed, but studies indicate convection currents and layers of increasing density and temperature until the core is reached where thermonuclear reactions take place. Stars consist mainly of hydrogen and helium, with varying amounts of heavier elements. The largest stars known are supergiants with diameters that are more than 400 times that of the sun, whereas the small stars known as white dwarfs have diameters that may be only 0.01 times that of the sun. Giant stars are usually diffuse, however, and may be only 40 times more massive than the sun, whereas white dwarfs are extremely dense and may have masses about 0.1 times that of the sun despite their small size. Supermassive stars are suspected that could be 1000 times more massive than the sun, and, at the lower range, hot balls of gases may exist that are too small to initiate nuclear reactions. One possible such brown dwarf was first observed in 1987, and others have been detected since then. Star brightness is described in terms of magnitude. The brightest stars may be as much as 1,000,000 times brighter than the sun; white dwarfs are about 1000 times less bright....

Words: 865 - Pages: 4

A Look at Black Holes and Their Counterparts

...several billion times the mass of the Sun. The mass is measured by observing the speed with which stars and gas orbit around the center of the galaxy: the faster the orbital speeds, the stronger the gravitational force required to hold the stars and gas in their orbits (internet 1). Astronomers believe these massive dark objects in galactic centers to be black holes for at least two reasons. First, it is hard to think of anything else they could be: they are too dense and dark to be stars or clusters of stars. Secondly, the only promising theory to explain the enigmatic objects known as quasars and active galaxies postulates that such galaxies have supermassive black holes at their cores. If this theory is correct, then a large fraction of galaxies -- all the ones that are now or used to be active galaxies-- must have supermassive black holes at the center (internet 1). Taken together, these arguments strongly suggest that the cores of these galaxies contain black holes, but these theories are not absolute. However, two very recent discoveries have been made that strongly support the hypothesis that these systems do indeed contain black holes. First, a nearby active galaxy was found to have a water maser system (a very powerful source of microwave radiation) near its nucleus and using the technique of very-long-baseline interferometry, a group of researchers was able to map the velocity distribution of the gas with very fine resolution (internet 1). In fact,......

Words: 3151 - Pages: 13

Black Holes and Their Mysteries

...sucking everything in and nothing will escape. If this is true then the whole universe will eventually be swallowed by black holes. The reality is that entities that are farther and outside of the event horizon will simply orbit around it, much like how earth orbits around the sun. How big and how heavy are black holes? Astronomers believe some black holes can be as small as a single atom but weighs as much as mountains. There are also stellar black holes. Many of these black holes exist in the Milky Way galaxy and may weigh more than twenty times as much as the sun. The largest black holes are located in the center of larger galaxies. These large black holes are called supermassive black holes and can be over one million masses of the sun. In the center of the Milky Way galaxies there is also a supermassive black hole, named Sagittarius A. This black hole is the equivalent of four million solar masses. It is the gravity for this black hole that holds the Milky Way galaxy together. Black holes are not only classified by sizes (mass), they are also classified by spin and magnetic fields. Black holes that do not have spin and magnetic field are called a Schwarzschild black hole. Black holes that has a field but has no spin is named Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. And Kerr black hole is a black hole that possesses a magnetic field and spin. Schwarzschild black holes are the simplest black holes, since they only have two main components, which are the singularity and......

Words: 1064 - Pages: 5

How the Telescope Changed Astronomy

...have been known to act similarly), whether it be matter or energy or a force. In regard to the advancement of the telescope, these theories helped form the study known as adaptive optics. Adaptive optics is a modern technology used to reduce the interference on a large telescope used for deep space imagery. When astronomers began to find that they could see further and further, and go deeper and deeper into space (much further than Neptune and the other outer planets of our solar system), it was time to stop mapping the constellations and study the ins and outs of the universe. Some of the discoveries made with the use of adaptive optics include, but aren’t limited to: increasing expansion of the universe, supermassive black holes, quasars (technically quasars and supermassive black holes go together), hundreds of thousands of new planets and stars discovered, and many things about the natures of different galaxies. Albeit, these subjects don’t have much to do with human society, or the ‘right now’ aspect that most humans seem to care the most about in modern society (at least American society), but for the ‘long run’ aspect in life, it gives physicists and even people that are just sort of interested in the eventual fate of the universe an idea of how the universe might end. It isn’t so much the end of the universe that is important, but the methods and theories that give that conclusion. As previously discussed, Newton developed his laws of motion based off of his data......

Words: 2278 - Pages: 10


...all matter must constantly move to avoid being pulled into the black hole. * Matter that approaches a black hole’s event horizon is stretched and torn by the extreme tidal forces generated by the black hole, light from the matter is redshifted, and time slows down. * Black holes can evaporate by the Hawking process, in which virtual particles near the black hole become real. These transformations of virtual particles into real ones decrease the mass of a black hole until, eventually, it disappears. Evidence of Black Holes * Observations indicate that some binary star systems harbor black holes. In such systems, gases captured by the black hole from the companion star heat up and emit detectable X rays and jets of gas. * Supermassive black holes exist in the centers of many galaxies. Intermediate-mass black holes appear to exist in globular clusters of stars. Very low mass (primordial) black holes may have formed at the beginning of the universe. Gamma-Ray Bursts * Gamma-ray bursts are events believed to be caused by some supernovae and by the collisions of dense objects, such as neutron stars or black holes. Some occur in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, whereas many others occur billions of light-years away from Earth. * Typical gamma-ray bursts occur for a few tens of seconds and emit more energy than the Sun will radiate over its entire 10-billion-year lifetime. CHAPTER 15: THE MILKY WAY GALAXY Discovering the Milky Way * A century ago,......

Words: 7381 - Pages: 30

Black Holes: What Do We Know?

...Black Holes: What Do We Know? Carl Antoni Everest University Abstract Answering the questions we have about black holes brings us closer to understanding them and the many ways they can benefit us. They give us clear insight on Einstein's law of relativity, help create cutting-edge technology, give us extraordinary insights to the universe and most of all it gives us amazing journeys of imagination where we can contemplate their amazing properties. The mysteries of the black hole exemplify the beginning and the end of everything science has discovered out in our vast universe. Beginning with Newton's law of gravitation, Einstein's law of relativity and expanding to supermassive black holes with infinite density and infinite gravity. A supermassive black hole has the mass of 1,000,000 to 1,000,000,000 of our Suns. There are smaller black holes but the smallest has to have a mass of at least 10 of our Suns. It is this mass that creates the immense gravitational tides that compress a giant star into an incredibly small entity that has such a tremendous gravity that not even light can escape. How is this possible? How are they created? How do we know they are there if no light escapes from them? Is there more than one universe? Is there such things as wormholes that can connect vast distance of space and time? These just a few of the provocative questions black holes inspire. What are Black Holes and what do they mean? Science has made many......

Words: 1940 - Pages: 8


...The black hole of South-East Asia: strategic decision making in an informational void George T. Haley Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Business, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia Chin-Tiong Tan Associate Professor, Faculty of Business Administration, National University of Singapore, Singapore Proposes that most managers and researchers acknowledge that emerging and newly industrialized markets do not have the same quantity of secondary data as the longindustrialized economies of North America and Western Europe. Presents the results of a search of available, business-related, secondary data on South-East Asia’s rapidly growing economies; highlights how this dearth of data has resulted in an informational void that affects the practice of strategic management in the region. Also delineates how regional managers cope with and adapt to the informational void, and to the region’s fastchanging business, cultural and competitive environments, by developing their unique, highly-intuitive style of strategic management. Finally provides some suggestions to bridge this informational void for management practice and for future research. The authors thank the Guest Editor, Dr Usha C.V. Haley, two anonymous reviewers, and Comet, for their excellent comments and suggestions. Management Decision 34/9 [1996] 37–48 © MCB University Press [ISSN 0025-1747] An old adage posits that the quality of one’s decisions depends on the quality of one’s information. The......

Words: 9921 - Pages: 40


...10 Effective Teaching Techniques: How to capture and maintain your student in Science and Mathematics. Tip #1: Engage • Engage the students in material that has personal relevance and is meaningful i.e. real life examples and problems Tip #2: Variety • Give the students assignments that involve a variety of learning styles Research with books Technology Hand on Experiments Tip #3: Students Teaching • Provide times when students can teach each other the material within the classroom i.e. group presentations – Leadership – Ownership – Mastery Test #4: Review • Every other day or so, allot 10 minutes at the beginning of each class for students to discuss among themselves what they learned in previous lessons. Tip #5: Reward system • Implement a reward system for students to encourage them to take their learning outside the classroom • Reward students who can apply the material to real life examples • Reward students who improve from test to test • Reward students who engage in group discussions outside of the classroom to discuss ideas on how to use their knowledge to solve problems. Tip #6: Goals • Help students establish short term, self referenced goals at the beginning of the term and have them check up midterm to see if they are still on track to accomplishing their goals Tip #7: Stimulate group work • At the end of each class, present the students with a “challenge for the night” and allow students to work in groups of 3 or 4 to......

Words: 361 - Pages: 2

Tech Lag, gets lost, tells me to go to addresses that don’t exist (like Starbucks that has been closed down). Transition: Speaking of dates..have you ever been on a date and your date is on their cell phone the entire time? II.Main Point: Who needs friends or dates? A. Support: 1. Going on dates with someone's cell phone 2. Too busy taking pictures (instagramming) of dinner instead of enjoying the taste B. Support: Have you ever been tried talking to your friends while they're texting? Having to repeat yourself a million times. Transition: What is that friend even doing on their cell phone? Looking up random useless information right? III.Main Point: Information Blackhole A. Support: Let me just go online for a second..10 hours later..WHAT HAPPENED and WHY DO I KNOW ALL THIS USELESS INFORMATION B. Support: 1. You can’t think of where you’ve seen a certain actor, so you go on the internet to try to find what movie they were in 2. What ends up happening is you look up their IMBD (a website showing all of their acting history) and you find out EVERY movie they’ve ever been in, and now you know all this useless information that’s taken you about 8 hours to read and find. CONCLUSION I. Summary: Technology sucks! We rely too heavily on it. Distracting – useless information. It’s taken over our daily lives, we need to get out and interact......

Words: 483 - Pages: 2

Dark Matter

...Dark matter guides growth of supermassive black holes Summary This article is about a new study between elliptical galaxies dark matter and their black holes. Previous studies revealed a relationship between a black hole’s mass and the mass of all the stars in an elliptical galaxy. We know of dark matter because of its gravitational attraction by holding galaxies and galaxy clusters. The dark matter halo is in every galaxy and is as dense as a trillion suns. There was a study of over 3,000 elliptical galaxies where researchers used star movement to track and weigh the galaxies’ black hole. To weigh the dark matter, they took x-ray measurements of the hot gas surrounding the galaxies. Due to the dark matter weighing so much it molds new elliptical galaxies and the growth of its central black hole. Relevance This article is relevant to topics covered this week in the lecture and text book. It relates specifically to chapters 14 and 15 of the text book regarding black holes, elliptical galaxies, and dark matter. Black holes are very dense objects that nothing, not even light, can escape from its surface. Elliptical galaxies tend to have brighter stars than spiral galaxies. The Milky Way galaxy is a spiral galaxy with a bright core and spiral arms. Dark matter doesn’t react with electromagnetic radiation and makes its presence known only through its exertion of gravitational force. The text book states, “We now estimate that 90% of the mass of galaxies is......

Words: 462 - Pages: 2

Into a Black Hole

...hjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm Into a black hole Lectures by Stephen Hawking 31/03/2015 DUBOIS Arnaud | ------------------------------------------------- Contents 1. Introduction 3 2. Main Part 3 2.1. Stephen Hawking 3 2.2. The evolution of a star 4 2.2.1. Small star 4 2.2.2. Large star 5 2.3. The black hole 6 2.3.1. Wormholes 6 2.3.2. Back to reality 7 2.3.3. Supermassive black holes 7 2.4. Critics 8 3. Conclusion 9 4. Personal Opinion 10 4. Annexes 11 5. Bibliography 13 1. Introduction The question whether black holes exist or not has been at the centre of Stephen Hawking's works. During my last year in high school, I already wrote a thesis about it. But since 2009 (my last year in high school) a lot has been changed about the subject. Stephen Hawking even said in 2014: "Notion of an 'event horizon', from which nothing can escape, is incompatible with quantum theory." First of all, I'll shortly speak about Stephen Hawking himself. Then the real text about all his work can be started. I'll first introduce the birth of a star followed by its evolution till its death. Then the concept...

Words: 3328 - Pages: 14

Black Holes

...t can escape.  Those effects will only take place in smaller black holes. Only three types of black holes  we can identify exist: stellar black holes, supermassive black holes, and intermediate black holes.  Intermediate black holes prove difficult to locate, and astronomers have only made recent  discoveries of them. Scientists believe they could occur when stars in a cluster collide. Stellar  black holes populate most of the universe. They form when stars greater than three times the  mass of the sun die and collapse on themselves. They stand as the smallest of all the black holes,  but they can increase mass by collecting dust and other matter. Supermassive black holes may  not have the numbers on stellar black holes, but they dominate. They reach millions and billions  the mass of our sun. Scientists can not really prove how they form, but they believe that the black  holes can form when hundreds of tiny black holes merge, or when a stellar black hole secretes a  Sigmund 5  large amount of matter (Redd). Black holes make our sun look like the size of a baseball. Some  people can not wrap their heads around the idea of such a large object.  Supermassive black holes lie in the center of every galaxy, according to scientists at  NASA. Objects called quasars have confirmed this theory. When a supermassive black hole  accretes massive amounts of matter, the matter heats up to millions of degrees causing a spill of  radiation and light, and that generates ......

Words: 1454 - Pages: 6

Netw 204 Entire Course Latest You are required to come up with advantages and disadvantages of using both cut-through and store-and-forward. What would your list entail? Provide support for each item in your list. (10 points) 3. Explain how each of the following commands below will impact the switched network? Which command is the default command used when setting up port-security on a Cisco switch? (10 points) Week 2 Homework Assignment VLAN 1. A network engineer typed the following command on a switch hostname S1 and observed the output below. Explain each entry in the output and the possible source for each MAC address in the MAC Address Table. (10 points) 2. Explain the significance of each of the following types of VLAN: Data, Management, Native, and Blackhole. Explain where each type of VLAN fits into a LAN network. In addition, what is the default VLAN on a Cisco switch for Data, Management, and Native frames? Justify your answer (10 points) 3. List the range of Normal VLANs. What VLANs are reserved in that range? List the Extended VLAN range. What, if any, VLANs are reserved in that range? (10 points) Week 3 Homework Assignment Inter-VLAN Routing 1. A Given the network diagram below. Enter the commands, including the router prompt, to configure the router, for router-on-a-stick. (10 points) 2. Given the network diagram below. Enter the commands, including the switch prompt, to configure S1 to forward VLAN traffic. (10 points) 3. The organization added a new VLAN, VLAN......

Words: 1848 - Pages: 8

10 Biggest

...makes it even “fluffier” than TRES4. 8) Largest Star VY Canis Majoris is the largest star (in diameter) that we know of. It’s in a class of star known as Red Hyper Giants. It’s 2,000 times wider than the sun and would take the world’s fastest race car 2,600 years to circle it once. If you replaced our Sun with VY Canis Majoris, it’s radius would extend out passed Saturn. (see picture to the left for comparison to our own sun). 7) Largest Black Hole Black holes are not physically large regions of space. But when you include their mass, they are among the top competitors for the largest things in the universe. And quasar OJ287 is the largest black hole we’ve spotted. It’s estimated to be 18 billion times the mass of our sun and is a supermassive black hole located in the center of a galaxy. To put that in perspective, it’s an object larger than our entire solar system. Just how big can a black hole get? According to scientists, there is no theoretical upper limit. 6) Largest Galaxy A super galaxy is a galaxy that has merged with many others and they sit in the middle of galaxy clusters. The largest that we’ve discovered so far, is arguably the IC1101 super galaxy. It is 6 million light years across. Compare that to the Milky Way which is a mere 100 thousand light years across. IC1101 is a staggering 60 times larger than our own. 5) Radio Lobes Radio lobes are powered by the accretion disk of super massive black holes. Black holes that sit at the center of most......

Words: 904 - Pages: 4

Dragonaut: The Resonance | 1983 temporada 1 capitulo 8 descarga gratis | Men's Grooming