Survey in Highway and Traffic Engineering

In: Other Topics

Submitted By internazionale
Words 1158
Pages 5

REG NO.: 111/00104

COURSE: Bachelor of Engineering Geospatial Engineering



ASSIGNMENT: How to reduce the number of road accidents in Kenya.


Submission date April 14, 2014.

A road accident, also known as a traffic accident, motor vehicle collision, motor vehicle accident, car accident, automobile accident, road traffic collision, car crash, or car smash occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree or utility pole for instance electricity poles or fence poles. Traffic collisions may result in injury, death, vehicle damage and property damage. They have led to loss of thousands of life and others being paralyzed for the rest of their lives while others are left with permanent scars which remind them of the occurrence. It is regarded as one of the main cause of death after diseases.
Here I am going to concentrate on how to reduce road accidents in Kenya through the various engineering disciplines in the country. These disciplines include geospatial engineering, civil and building engineering, mechanical engineering (automotive engineering) and electrical engineering. A. Improvement of road design to reduce accidents on black spots
This area has the geospatial and civil engineers who mainly deal with design and construction of roads in the country.
Here fall many black spots, mainly because some roads were poorly designed and inspection wasn’t done in the right way. Accidents occur mainly where there are curves both vertical and horizontal curves, where roads intersect and where roads are in a poor condition. They have one this through a) Having a clear line of sight in areas…...

Similar Documents


...Civil Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence. The earliest practices of Civil engineering may have commenced between 4000 and 2000 BC in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia (Ancient Iraq) when humans started to abandon a nomadic existence, thus causing a need for the construction of shelter. During this time, transportation became increasingly important leading to the development of the wheel and sailing. Until modern times there was no clear distinction between civil engineering and architecture, and the term engineer and architect were mainly geographical variations referring to the same person, often used interchangeably. The construction of Pyramids in Egypt (circa 2700-2500 BC) might be considered the first instances of large structure constructions. In the 18th century, the term civil engineering was coined to incorporate all things civilian as opposed to military engineering. The first engineering school, The National School of Bridges and Highways, France, was opened in 1747. The first self-proclaimed civil engineer was John Smeaton who constructed the Eddystone Lighthouse. In 1771, Smeaton and some of his colleagues formed the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers, a group of leaders of the profession who met informally over dinner. Though there was evidence of some technical meetings, it was little more than a social society. In 1818, world’s first engineering society, the Institution of Civil Engineers was founded in London, and......

Words: 589 - Pages: 3


... ENGINEERING ETHICS Concepts and Cases This page intentionally left blank F O U R T H ENGINEERING ETHICS Concepts and Cases g E D I T I O N CHARLES E. HARRIS Texas A&M University MICHAEL S. PRITCHARD Western Michigan University MICHAEL J. RABINS Texas A&M University Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States Engineering Ethics: Concepts and Cases, Fourth Edition Charles E. Harris, Michael S. Pritchard, and Michael J. Rabins Acquisitions Editor: Worth Hawes Assistant Editor: Sarah Perkins Editorial Assistant: Daniel Vivacqua Technology Project Manager: Diane Akerman Marketing Manager: Christina Shea Marketing Assistant: Mary Anne Payumo Marketing Communications Manager: Tami Strang Project Manager, Editorial Production: Matt Ballantyne Creative Director: Rob Hugel Art Director: Cate Barr Print Buyer: Paula Vang Permissions Editor: Mardell Glinski-Schultz Production Service: Aaron Downey, Matrix Productions Inc. Copy Editor: Dan Hays Cover Designer: RHDG/Tim Heraldo Cover Image: SuperStock/Henry Beeker Compositor: International Typesetting and Composition  c 2009, 2005 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution...

Words: 48169 - Pages: 193


...Background: Traffic congestion is not a new problem. The number of automobiles and trucks have been increased during the last few decades after the car boom period. So there was an urgent need for constructing more highways and bridges , improving traffic-signal controllers, making changeable highway signs, rerouting rush hour traffic, creating traffic-control centers that monitor and display the overall traffic conditions, using preplanned alternative traffic solutions based on repeated daily traffic patterns, etc. However, some strict financial sanctions or fines must be applied to eliminate the problem of traffic jam. For Jeddah city, the streets are overcrowded with cars and people. At the same time, the airports are welcoming a large number of newcomers all over the world every day. Moreover, the number of roads and bridges is not sufficient to the increasing number of vehicles. In addition, in Jeddah there are approximately four million people both Saudis and expatriates who use over one million vehicles to move around the city. We also expect more. Causes of traffic congestion inside the cities Saudi Arabia is a modern Country, but it also has a modern and serious problem. Every day in the morning and evening, the roads and streets are so crowded with cars, taxis, buses and trucks. In this part will mention the causes of traffic congestion in Saudi Arabia’s major cities. In the next lines, we will speak about the several reasons for traffic problems in......

Words: 1731 - Pages: 7

Automated Traffic Enforcement

...Automated Traffic Enforcement Policy This policy addresses the installation and use by state, city and county law enforcement agencies of automated traffic enforcement systems, specifically, automated red-light violation and speed enforcement systems on the state highway system only. The Missouri Highways and Transportation Commission (MHTC) hereby delegates the administration of this Policy to the MoDOT Director, who shall be authorized to further delegate by memorandum the administration of this Policy to such MoDOT employee(s) as the MoDOT Director deems appropriate. Automated Enforcement of Red-Light Violations To ensure red-light traffic signal violations are mitigated as completely and as feasibly possible, state highway intersections that are candidates for automated red-light violation enforcement will undergo both an engineering study and a violation study. The engineering study will ensure the state highway intersection warrants the installation of an automated red-light enforcement system and that the cameras and related equipment will not impact the existing signal operation. The review will encompass the following steps: Step 1: Confirm safety problem Step 2: Identify the scope Step 3: Conduct engineering analysis to identify factors contributing to problem Step 4: Identify and select appropriate countermeasures Step 5: Implement countermeasures The violation study will include each approach of the state highway intersection. Conditions for......

Words: 929 - Pages: 4


...responsible for this? Traffic Jam is that magician. Traffic jam has become a great monster in our modern life. Traffic jam has turned daily trips into nightmares. The business community inevitably suffers for the constant waste of its most precious resource of time. Others commuters complain of being stuck in jam for hours an end, while residents breathe in a lat more lead and almost 10 percent of its population seeks medical treatment each year for air pollution related respiratory illnesses. I. Drivers don’t comply with traffic rules. II. Allegations of police support to makeshift shops on footpaths and street sidelines and illegal automobile and rickshaw parking, which occupy more than a third of the streets. III. Some police officers are busy for extracting money for allowing illegal parking. IV. Lack of automatic traffic signals, slow-moving illegal rickshaws and rail crossings are also causing serious traffic jam. Many roads of Dhaka city are not spacious according to the necessity. As aresult, traffic jam occurs very now and then in the congested areas even of the highways. Overtaking tendency is another reason which causes traffic jam. Moreover, our traffic system is not so modern and the number of traffic police is insufficient. It is a matter of shame that some so-called politicians., student leaders and selfish persons also create traffic jam in order to fulfill their evil desires Rickshaws also reate traffic jam. Traffic jam stops our normal......

Words: 549 - Pages: 3


...Construction Engineering This civil engineering branch deals with the planning, construction and maintenance of structures. Construction engineering is the planning and execution of designs from site development, environmental, structural, transportation and structural engineers. They must ensure that the plans that have been designed by other engineers are implemented to their exact specifications. Construction engineers will supervise field work during the entire project. They are in a sense a cross between an engineer and manager as they will oversee the project from start to finish and handle any problems that come up throughout the duration of the project. Structural Engineering This branch of civil engineering encompasses the structural analysis and design of structures. It is the responsibility of the structural engineer to analyze and design a structure that will safely bear or resist the stresses, forces and loads. The design must satisfy the project specifications while meeting all safety regulations. The structure must endure massive loads as well as natural disasters and climate changes. Geotechnical Engineering In geotechnical engineering the engineer studies soil, foundations and bearing capacities. The engineer will study the behavior of the earth materials and how they will affect a structure that is to be constructed. They will also evaluate pre-existing structures that are showing signs of problems with the earth materials under or near the......

Words: 798 - Pages: 4

Impact of Traffic Congestion

...Causes of Traffic Congestion: Time wastage lead to inefficiency of public transport and negative impacts on economy In a congested traffic condition, the first thought of people is that time is wasted when they are caught in a traffic jam. According to Rozmi Ismail, et. al (2012), traffic congestion causes unpredictable time which causes the bus service system in Malaysia to be inefficient. Other than that, Morgan (2014) also claimed that, drivers will also face the same problem as they could not predict an actual time to certain destination causing their working performance to decline. As a result, economic growth is affected as time is wasted in a traffic jam which causes every individual to be late for their work and appointments, leading to loss in productivity for businesses (Hartman 2014). In Malaysia, heavily congested highways in Klang Valley causes lost in manpower hours that will lead to a loss more than RM12million per year (Gomez 2014). Fuel consumption and pollution In a congested traffic condition, fuel consumption is much more higher than a smooth rate traffic as the fuel consumption rate is strongly associated to the driving pattern such as stop and go, acceleration on-deceleration and so on (Robinson 1984). The consumption rate of a motor vehicle increase in traffic congestion will increase the fuel consumption costs of commuters thus daily expenditure of commuters will be burdened (Morgan 2014). Other than that, emission of greenhouse gases which leads......

Words: 993 - Pages: 4

Traffic Jam in Dhaka City

...Traffic Jam in Dhaka City Over the last few years the transportation problem of Dhaka City has visibly been deteriorating steadily. Citizens constantly complain about the unbearable twin problems of traffic jam and air pollution. Democracy watch decided to address this problem through an opinion poll covering around eight hundred households randomly selected from several purposively selected neighbourhoods of the city, representatives of middle and lower income areas. The questions asked focused mainly on three issues: (a) the nature of the problem as perceived by the surveyed residents, (b) their understanding about the causes of these problems and (c) their recommendations on solutions to these perceived problems. Some preliminary results from this survey were presented at a workshop, which was   participated by persons associated with the formulation and implementation of traffic policies, rules and programmes .This Draft Final Report benefits from valuable discussion and comments received at the workshop. The methodology of this survey is explained below in brief. It is easy to see that the study extended beyond a standard opinion poll and entered the arena of investigative research in seeking some explanations to perceptions as well as behaviour. The findings are presented mainly in the form of self-explanatory tables with some introductory highlights and conclusions. A further extension of the survey is currently being completed to cover the very poor and......

Words: 5654 - Pages: 23


...Traffic has always been a problem when driving in a big city. There are many improvements that can be done to fix or lessen the amount of traffic throughout a city. Such things as wider roads (i.e. super highways), monorails, and even for some to re-take their driving tests. The use of monorails within a city as a means of public transportation would be a great way to get from point A to point B, without having to use a personal vehicle and therefore decreasing the amount of vehicles on the road. A downside to using a monorail is the cost. Currently the Bombardier MVI that is being used in Las Vegas, NV, costs $88 million per mile. Expensive yet effective. This would help cut down on the amount of stop and go traffic. Another helpful agenda that would reduce the flow of stop and go traffic is if each state were to issue a bill, stating that a driver after a certain age must retake their driving test. As stated by Moore, Peter in Front Page and Life, “Most Americans think that 75-year olds should have to re-sit their driving tests in order to keep on driving, while people also it’s about as difficult as it should be to get a license in the first place.” Can you think back to a time where you were on your way to say either a doctor’s appointment or running a tad bit late for work and you happen to get stuck behind a slow moving elderly person that clearly wasn’t even driving the speed limit? Having a set age limit by each state for the elderly to retake their driving test......

Words: 521 - Pages: 3

Traffic and Engineering Department/City of Augusta Georgia

...commissions; provide for the preparation and amendment of overall plans for the orderly growth and development of municipalities and the counties; provide regulation of structures on mapped streets, public building sites, and public open spaces; repeal conflicting laws; and for other purposes. The city’s daily operations are handled by the City Administrator who reports to the Commission and oversees the Operations Portfolio. Two Deputy Administrators oversee the operations in the public safety portfolio and the Administrative Services portfolio. The City employs 2,600 people. The Augusta-Richmond county Planning commission, a 12-member appointed body, was created and organized under the Home Rule Provision to make careful and comprehensive surveys and studies of existing conditions and probable future developments and to prepare such plans for physical, social and economic growth to promote the best plan for public heath, safety, morals, convenience, prosperity, or the general welfare as well as efficiency and economy in the development of the city. The planning commission which employs a staff off of administrative personnel, professional planners and technical support is a recommending body- it makes written recommendations to the Augusta Commission on matters such as rezoning petitions, Zoning Ordinances and Subdivision Regulations amendments, and final Plat approvals. The city of Augusta uses the comprehensive planning process and land zoning procedures to set the......

Words: 2245 - Pages: 9


...soğurucu durum etkin soğurma alanı soğurum yitimi enerji soğurum kiplenimi soğurulma, soğurum soğurum izgesi soğurum tuzağı soğurgan zayıflatıcı 1) öz; 2) soyut soyut simge soyut sözdizim ağacı soyutlama almaşık akım, AA AA/DA çevirici ivmelendirmek, hızlandırmak ivdirilmiş sınama, hızlandırılmış test ivme bağlağı, ivme rölesi yerçekimi ivmesi accelerator accelerometer acceptable level of risk acceptable mean life acceptable quality level acceptance boundary acceptance criteria acceptance acceptance probability acceptance sampling acceptor acceptor level accesibility access authorization access barred access category access coding access control methods access list access network access period access record access right access time access traffic access, to accessory accident accidental accidental jamming accountability accounting machine accounting rate accreditation accumulate, to accumulator accumulator bus accumulator register accuracy class accuracy accuracy of a measuring instrument accuracy of measurement accuracy rating ACK acknowledge character acknowledge, to acknowledgement acknowledgement signal acoustic 1) ivdirici (nükleer); 2) hızlandırıcı (donanım) ivmeölçer onanır risk düzeyi onanır ortalama ömür onanır nitelik düzeyi onama sınırı onama ölçütleri onama, kabul onama olasılığı onama örneklemesi alıcı alıcı düzeyi erişirlik erişim yetkisi erişim engelli erişim sınıfı erişim kodu erişim kontrol yöntemleri erişim listesi erişim ağı erişim dönemi erişim......

Words: 38690 - Pages: 155

Traffic Safety Analysis

...Page |1 Traffic Risk Analysis of Tamil Nadu district Using RADM System and Index Creation for safety estimate Submitted by Namit Jain (2011CE10371) A report of CED 412 - Project Part II submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Bachelor of Technology Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Delhi May, 2015 Page |2 Declaration “I do certify that this report explains the work carried out by me in the Course CED 412 Project Part II under the overall supervision of Dr. Geetam Tiwari and Dr. Dinesh Mohan. The contents of the report including text, figures, tables, computer programs, etc. have not been reproduced from other sources such as books, journals, reports, manuals, websites, etc. Wherever limited reproduction from another source had been made, the source had been duly acknowledged at that point and also listed in the References.” Namit Jain 2011CE10371 Page |3 Certificate “This is to certify that the report submitted by Namit Jain describes the work carried out by him in the Course CED 412 - Project Part II under my/our overall supervision.” Dr. Geetam Tiwari Professor Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology New Delhi – 110016 May 2015 Dr. Dinesh Mohan Professor Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology New Delhi – 110016 May 2015 Page |4 Acknowledgement I take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude......

Words: 15562 - Pages: 63

Traffic School

...I. THE COMMON SENSE OF DRIVING Keeping a point off your DMV record is not the only thing that occurs when you successfully complete this Traffic Violator Course. You will increase your knowledge of California's driving laws as well. Why is that important? When your safety is at risk, raising your driving consciousness is always beneficial. The unfortunate truth is many drivers get tickets simply because they are not paying attention or have forgotten some rule of the vehicle code. In other words, what you are about to read can save you money by helping you to avoid breaking the law, receiving a traffic citation, and having to pay the penalty. But more important, what you are about to read can easily save your life… or someone else's. A. THE SERIOUS RESPONSIBILITY OF OPERATING A MOTOR VEHICLE When you get behind the driver seat, you’re not just driving a car. You are driving a 2,000 pound plus piece of machinery. The lives of your passengers and all other drivers and pedestrians around you on the road are at risk. Driving is the most dangerous thing you do on a daily basis. One little mistake at any speed, whether at 65 mph or 35 mph, can be deadly. As a driver, your responsibility is not only to respect the law but also to appreciate the risks when you operate your vehicle, risks both to yourself and to the other drivers with whom you share the road. Yes, the key word here is SHARE. 1. MOTOR VEHICLE IS A WEAPON You don‘t believe that? Any object that......

Words: 49757 - Pages: 200

Traffic Engineering

... Traffic Engineering Design This page intentionally left blank Traffic Engineering Design Principles and Practice Second edition Mike Slinn MVA Limited, MVA House, Victoria Way, Woking GU21 1DD, UK Paul Matthews MVA Limited, Third Floor, One Berners Street, London W1T 3LA, UK Peter Guest 8 The Grove, Farnborough, Hampshire GU14 6QR, UK AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON • NEW YORK • OXFORD PARIS • SAN DIEGO • SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 30 Corporate Drive, Burlington, MA 01803 First published by Arnold, 1998 Reprinted 2003 Second edition 2005 Copyright © 2005, Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a license issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W1T 4LP. Applications for the copyright holder’s written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publisher. Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science and Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone: (ϩ44) (0) 1865 843830; fax: (ϩ44) (0) 1865......

Words: 83129 - Pages: 333

Civil Engineering.

...rCivil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as bridges, roads, canals, dams and buildings.[1][2][3] Civil engineering is the oldest engineering discipline after military engineering,[4] and it was defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering.[5] It is traditionally broken into several sub-disciplines including environmental engineering,geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, transportation engineering, municipal or urban engineering, water resources engineering, materials engineering, coastal engineering,[4] surveying, and construction engineering.[6] Civil engineering takes place on all levels: in the public sector from municipal through to federal levels, and in the private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies. ------------------------------------------------- History of the civil engineering profession Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence. The earliest practices of Civil engineering may have commenced between 4000 and 2000 BC in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia (Ancient Iraq) when humans started to abandon a nomadic existence, thus causing a need for the construction of shelter. During this time, transportation became increasingly important leading to the development of the wheel and sailing. Until modern times there......

Words: 5421 - Pages: 22

The Last Witness | Pусский | Watch Now