Water Sustainability

In: Science

Submitted By 12werle
Words 412
Pages 2
Water Resources and Sustainability Notes
Distribution of fresh and salt water around the world:
- 97.5% of all water on the Earth is salt water, leaving only 2.5% fresh water.
- Nearly 70% of that fresh water is frozen in the icecaps
- Most of the remainder is present as soil moisture, or lies in deep underground aquifers as groundwater is not accessible to human use.
- Less than 1% of the world’s fresh water is accessible for human uses and this water is found in lakes, rivers and reservoirs.
Changing rainfall patterns in Australia:
- Since 1911 rainfall has been kept
- Reduction in rainfall in Western Australia in 2 stages 1911-1971, 1975-1976, 1997-2009
- Reduced rainfall in WA is due to climate change, increased rainfall in other areas around the world.
Surface water catchment areas and dams:
- Canning Dam, North Dandalup Dam, Victoria Dam, Wungong Dam
Current Groundwater sources:
- Groundwater occurs in aquifers – sand or rock formations below the surface that store and transmit water through them
- Rainfall seeps beneath our sandy soils to create a groundwater system made up of a number of aquifers that may be confined or unconfined
- Three main aquifers in Perth: superficial, Leederville and Yarragade
- Two main groundwater systems that have been developed for public water supply Gnangara and Jandakot
- Future groundwater sources Gingin, Jurien and North West groundwater resources.
Water catchment management
Catchment management needed because of risk from:
- Microbiological - Sewage waste from humans, sewage from animals
- Chemical – oil and fuel spillage, rubbish from dumping, pesticides and fertilizers from farms.
- Physical – turbidity due to poor land management e.g. erosion due to cleared land, fires and runoff, unsealed roads.
How does the management plan protect?
- Signs posted in catchment areas to advise prohibited activities…...

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