Words of Qin Dynasty

In: English and Literature

Submitted By reneewang
Words 273
Pages 2
秦汉汉字与书法 中国秦汉时期,汉字的变迁更为剧烈也最为复杂,大篆经过省改而创造了小篆,李斯所书《泰山》、《琅琊》、《峄山》等石刻,就是小篆的典型。另外隶书发展成熟,草书发展成章草,行书和楷书也在萌芽。书法家随之大量出现,此一时期的书法成就给后世的书法艺术产生了深远的影响。秦汉书法遗存今天的有帛书、简牍书、还有壁画、陶瓶及碑上的刻字。 汉代的石碑艺术在这一期间取得了辉煌的成绩,西汉较少而东汉却“碑碣云起”。出现了象《张迁碑》为代表的方劲古朴类;以《曹全碑》为代表的飘逸劲秀类;还有如《礼器碑》和前、后《史晨碑》的端庄凝练类等著名的碑铭。 隶书书体在此时的碑刻艺术中占有重要的地位。除了石刻外,近年出土的秦汉竹木简、帛书也十分丰富。如《睡虎地秦简》、《长沙马王堆老子帛书》、《武威汉医简》、《居延汉简》等。篆、隶、章草均有,足与碑刻笔法体势相印证。其中有一些已显露行书、正楷的端倪。由于书法艺术在秦汉时代的昌盛,篆刻在这一时期也十分精美。各种印章出现并发展。
秦刻石与小篆
所谓小篆,当以秦刻石为代表。 据《史记·秦始皇本纪》言:秦始皇曾经在东巡中立了六块碑刻。今所存者仅《泰山石刻》、《琅琊石刻》两种。秦刻石传为李斯所书。 《泰山石刻》为前219年时所刻,原石毁于清乾隆五年(1740)今存十字,其书与大篆比较,笔画俭约,结体更为规矩典雅。 《峄山刻石》今所传者为宋郑文宝所摹刻,峄山翻刻甚多,而尤以郑氏为最精。以上诸碑是秦篆的典型,其特点是用笔匀净挺瘦,提笔疾过,圆融峻整,其笔法又如玉筋、钗骨,所以秦篆又称“玉筋篆”秦刻比《石鼓文》、《秦公簋》简化,而且结束了六国文字混乱的局面。 峄山石刻

琅琊刻石

李斯泰山刻石
秦二世胡亥东巡泰山时,丞相李斯所作,为小篆之祖师。
[pic] 秦诏版文 [pic]

秦小篆——琅琊台刻石
西汉刻石
西汉的石刻很少见,据宋尤袤《砚北杂记》说:“闻自新莽恶称汉德,凡有石刻,皆令仆而磨之,仍严其禁。”赵明诚《金石录》仅著录《居摄两坟坛》、《五凤刻石》两种。其他西汉石刻是清以后才陆续发现的,所以伪刻较多。近人徐森玉《西汉石刻文字初探》所收集计有十种,有《霍去病墓石刻字》、《莱子侯刻石》等十种。以上石刻仅仅是作为坟坛、宫殿的计时标志,属于“小品”性质。从以上西汉的时刻来看,隶书的波磔还不明显,严格的讲,都非正规的汉隶碑刻,其实,西汉的隶书已经成熟,具有波磔挑笔。可以从1972年山东临
沂银雀山汉墓出土的《孙子兵法简》、《孙膑兵法简》中看到,笔画都带有燕尾波挑。
[pic]

[pic]
山东临沂银雀山汉墓出土的《孙子兵法简》
东汉刻石 东汉“碑碣云起”。刻碑之风盛行的原因之一是,当时的门生故吏很多,为府主歌功颂德,或封山祭祀之用。自郦道元《水经注》便见诸于著录,有三百多件,碑刻、拓片流传至今者(包括近所发现)的约有二百余种。清代朱彝尊在《跋汉华山碑》中把汉隶分成三种类型风格:方正、流丽、奇古。其实从形制上可以分为碑刻和摩崖两大类。从艺术特点上可以把其分为:典雅、秀逸、拙朴、雄浑、纵肆、平整、古峭、奇谲。它们的代表作品分别为:《史晨碑》、《乙瑛碑》,《礼器碑》、《曹全碑》,《张迁碑》,《西狭碑》,《石门颂》,《熹平石经》,《裴岑碑》,《夏承碑》。
[pic]
[pic] [pic]

乙 瑛 碑

[pic]

史 晨 碑

[pic]
孔庙碑
[pic]
熹平石经
[pic]
汉隶——蔡邕:熹平石经
也称《石经》.汉灵帝嘉平四年(公元175年),蔡邕等建议在太学建立正定的六经标准文字,以免贻识后学,为此而立。传为蔡邕所书。碑石共46个,太学旧址在今洛阳市,碑立太学门前。几经动乱,原碑早已无存。自宋以来,常有残石出上,据说现已集存80OO多字,字体方正,结构谨严,是当时通行的标准字体。
[pic]
张迁碑
[pic]…...

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Words

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Word

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